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Cold war ­ Introduction

1944 1991
Superpower Rivalry

1. No direct armed conflict/conflicts within `proxy wars' [Korea/Vietnam/Cuba (ideological)]
2. Propaganda
3. Noncooperation
4. Economic weapons
5. Atomic/nuclear feature

Overview Notes
Cold war ­ 19441991
Superpower coexistence & rivalry between: USA and allies on one side, and USSR and satellite…

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Chapter 1: The Seeds of Conflict

Seeds of conflict are far more evident in the developments promoted by WWI than WWII
o WWI a crucial cause of the February revolution in Russia, 1917, which led to:
The provisional government
The success of Lenin
The world's first socialist state

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Comintern set up to support Commy groups throughout the world and support their
attempts to undermine capitalism
o January 1918, Woodrow Wilson issued his `Fourteen Points'
a) Self determination: the right of all national groups to choose their own government
b) Open markets: dismantle trade barriers limiting the freedom of…

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viii. August 1939 ­ NaziSoviet Pact
a. Limited threat of Germany invasion to USSR
b. Gave Stalin time to prepare for what he believed to be an `inevitable war'
c. Condemned by BR. and FR. but they had pushed Stalin towards it through policy of
d. `Marriage of convenience'…

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Chapter 2: How did the Cold War Develop? 194453

October '44, Churchill and Stalin met in Moscow and drew up the `naughty document'
o Greece, Britain 90%, USSR 10%
o Romania, Britain 10%, USSR 90%
o Hungary and Bulgaria, USSR 80%
Agreement between East and West still possible
Yalta and…

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Legacy of the atomic bomb
o Heightened distrust and suspicion
o Impact of Hiroshima and Nagasaki sent a clear message to Stalin of America's military superiority
Truman's failure to inform Stalin of the decision to drop the bombs sent a clear warning
Added to Soviet suspicion
Stalin determined to develop…

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o USA had not suffered land losses the way the USSR had
Led to the belief that the USSR had expansionist aims to spread world communism
There were also many American's who still believed in the ways of Imperialism


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British Attitudes: 1945
Bankrupt economy, tripled national debt
o Needed USA to help control Soviet influence
Feared US return to isolationism
Churchill replaced by Attlee
o No change in attitude towards Stalin
Many attempts made by Bevin to gain greater US commitment towards Europe
o By 1946 British foreign policy…

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Truman decided not to tell Stalin about the drop of the atomic bomb on Japan (happened 4
days after the conference)
Sort of like a warning to the USSR

Stage 2: Russian Influence in Eastern Europe, 194547
End of WWII Red army stationed throughout large parts of Eastern Europe (power…

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After WWII, economy for many countries in very bad condition. Britain in state of crisis, especially after the
winter of 4647
o Britain could no longer support its overseas commitments
o Warned USA February 1947 that they could not maintain troops in Greece
Greece strategically important area for Britain


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