Health Psychology - revision summary

HideShow resource information
Preview of Health Psychology - revision summary

First 304 words of the document:

Georgia Sadler
Health Psychology
Definition of approach
Promotion and maintenance of health
Avoidance, diagnosis, and treatment of illness
Improvement of health care provision
Focuses on areas of health where mental processes are involved e.g. sleep, stress, drug
misuse, how people cope with life threatening illnesses, and mental disorders
Biological approach ­ addiction, tolerance
How drugs act and understanding their effects
Social, cognitive, and learning approaches
Understanding what makes healthy/unhealthy behaviour
Promoting good health
Seeks to understand behaviours that can cause good/bad health and how it affects society
Define and use psychological terminology appropriately and
accurately
Substance misuse
Addiction to a substance that causes disruption in everyday life
Use of a drug in a way that affects the individual's mental and physical health
Interferes with social and personal functioning
Synapse
Tiny gap between axon terminal and dendrite
In the brain
Permits a neuron to pass an electrical/chemical signal to another cell
Tolerance
Drug user becomes used to a particular level of a drug
More is required to maintain the same effect
Has a limit
Drug is taken purely to avoid withdrawal
Physical dependence
When the body (including brain) cannot function normally without a drug supplementing
the neurotransmitter levels
Psychological dependence
A perception that coping without a particular drug is impossible
Leads to psychological symptoms such as cravings and irritability
Linked to self-confidence ­ euphoria
Believe you need the drug to function
Withdrawal
The effect of coming off a drug causing withdrawal symptoms
User takes drug to avoid withdrawal symptoms
When levels of the drug in the blood decrease, withdrawal occurs

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Georgia Sadler
Has the opposite feeling of the drug
Physical or psychological
Shaking, cold sweats, vomiting
Agonist
A drug that effectively mimics the action of a natural chemical messenger within the body
Hallucination
An apparent sensory experience that arises in the absence of an external stimulus
Excitory
Increases the probability of nerve impulses
Antagonist
Blocks effects of neurotransmitters
Stimulant
Increases the frequency of nerve impulses
Sedative
Drug that induces calmness or sleep
Depressant
Drugs that decrease the frequency of nerve impulses
Inhibitory
Decreases the probability…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Georgia Sadler
Examples regarding aversion therapy:
Rats made to feel sick when consuming sweetened water later avoided sweetened water
Demonstrated learning by association and provided evidence for aversion therapy to treat
alcoholics
Schramm-Sapyta
Adolescent male rats placed in cages for 16 hours a day for 3 days
Only liquid on offer was alcohol
Rats were then given a choice between water and alcohol
Rats given alcohol as adolescents consumed more frequently than rats not given such
early exposure
Strengths of using animals
Relatively small and…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Georgia Sadler
Comer 1997 ­ laboratory based token economy system to reduce drug taking in heroin
addicts
Evaluation
Qualitative data ­ reporting how a drug makes participants feel
Well controlled environment ­ drug quantities and measurable effects can be seen as
objective and reliable
Gives a clearer idea on the effect of drugs on human performance compared with animal
studies
Best way to systematically investigate the effects of a drug as all other factors are held
constant
Allows a better understanding of the mechanisms of…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Georgia Sadler
Describe two explanations for substance misuse. One explanation
must be from the Biological Approach, and one from the Learning
Approach
Learning Approach ­ Social Learning Theory
1. Observe role models taking drugs e.g. celebrity in media
2. Identify with the role model ­ want to do the same
3. Become motivated to take drugs and be like their role model
4.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Georgia Sadler
Mimic the neurotransmitter (agonist)- may increase the frequency of nerve impulses e.g.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Georgia Sadler
During everyday activity, a moderate amount of endorphin is naturally produced , causing
the release of dopamine and facilitating the reward systems within the brain
If the body is under stress/pain, receptors are stimulated and the level of dopamine
increases
Lock onto brain's receptor sites for pain
Heroin acts like a massive release of endorphin
Heroin floods the endorphin receptors
Large quantities of dopamine are released ­ activates the reward system and produces
feelings of well-being
Heroin blocks GABA (blocks dopamine at the…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Georgia Sadler
Withdrawal
Severity of symptoms is directly related to level of addiction
Symptoms start 6 ­ 12 hours after last fix
Failure to take a fix means symptoms will increase
Addict becomes agitated and often very aggressive
Symptoms peak after 26 ­ 72 hours
Most symptoms are over in a week
Becomes agitated and restless
Alternate between feeling hot and cold
Chicken skin (goose bumps)
Breathing becomes short and jerky
May then sleep for up to 12 hours but will wake to:
Cramps
Vomiting…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Georgia Sadler
Alcohol consumption stimulates the body to produce an enzyme that breaks down alcohol
more quickly
In a few weeks, a drinker will need to consume around 50% more alcohol to achieve the
same effect
Behavioural tolerance is largely a result of practice ­ individual becomes better at coping
with side-effects and appearing less drunk
Physiological dependence
Characterised by a lack of concern for the type of alcohol consumed
In extreme cases, alcoholics are known to drink industrial alcohol which can cause death
Often…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Georgia Sadler
Untreated withdrawal is fatal in a third of cases
Even with early treatment, about 5% of patients are likely to die
Describe and evaluate two ways of treating substance misuse,
including drug treatment in heroin dependence (the Biological
Approach) and one other ­ aversion therapy for alcohol abuse (the
Learning Approach)
Methadone ­ treatment in heroin dependence (Biological Approach)
Synthetic opiate ­ similar in chemical structure to heroin ­ has a similar effect at the
synapse ­ replaces heroin at synapse
Taken orally…read more

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »