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Georgia Sadler

Clinical Psychology
Define clinical psychology understanding that it is about explaining
and treating mental illness.
Abnormality is main focus of clinical psychology
Seeks to define what makes a behaviour abnormal
Diagnose problems so they can be treated
Mental illness

Describe what it meant by primary and secondary data…

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Georgia Sadler

Data may be out of date and not suitable for current research

Explain reliability and validity in clinical psychology.
In clinical psychology the goal of diagnosis can only be achieved if it is both consistent and it
reflects an actual disorder.
Important to give a reliable and valid…

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Georgia Sadler

Previous research suggested that many children with ADHD also had oppositional defiant
disorder as well as problems with peers and discipline

Etiological validity
The same causes are found in all people who have the same illness

Kim-Cohen et al 2005
Longitudinal study looking at conduct disorder in 5…

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Georgia Sadler

Giving examples, explain why it is important to consider cross-cultural
issues when diagnosing mental health issues.
Other cultures have different attitudes towards mental illness
Absolute ­ found in all cultures in the same form
Universal ­ present in some form bur subject to cultural influences
Culturally relative -…

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Georgia Sadler

Could automatically diagnose an illness specific to their culture when it may be a common
problem in all cultures

Describe the use of the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual)
Manual used by clinicians to diagnose mental illness
Multi-axial assessment system
DSM V came out in May 2013

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Georgia Sadler

Gottesman 1966
Wanted to look at nature aspect of schizophrenia
Secondary data ­ from 1 hospital in the USA concerning twins who had been diagnosed
with schizophrenia
Assessed 16 years of records
Found 68 patients who fitted the criteria
6 dropped out ­ 62 remained
31 males and…

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Georgia Sadler

Only good for positive symptoms ­ cannot say how they feel
Speciesism ­ opinion that a species should look after their own ­ should experiment on
animals to further our species
Anthropomorphism ­ assume an animal is behaving in a certain way for the same
reason(s) a human…

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Georgia Sadler

Objective measure of abnormality ­ quantitative
Cut off point ­ however, very little room for what is normal and abnormal
Can get treatment if abnormal
IQ test ­ more male dominated
Some behaviours e.g. IQ, being in top 2.5% is more desirable but still classed as abnormal…

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Georgia Sadler

Flatness of emotions (negative)
Not looking after one's self (negative)

Describe the features and symptoms of anorexia nervosa.
Addiction to not eating based on the fear of being fat
Downy hair
Distorted perception of body weight/shape
Amenorrhea ­ absence of 3 periods
Refusal to eat and maintain and…

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Georgia Sadler

Role of drugs
Amphetamines lead to an increase in dopamine
Large quantities lead to hallucinations and delusions
If drugs are given to schizophrenics, symptoms get worse

Parkinson's sufferers have low levels of dopamine
They take L-Dopa which increases dopamine
People with Parkinson's develop schizophrenic symptoms if they…


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