Clinical psychology - revision summary

Notes on everything you need to know for the clinical approach - edexcel

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Georgia Sadler
Clinical Psychology
Define clinical psychology understanding that it is about explaining
and treating mental illness.
Abnormality is main focus of clinical psychology
Seeks to define what makes a behaviour abnormal
Diagnose problems so they can be treated
Mental illness
Describe what it meant by primary and secondary data in doing
research.
Primary data
Original data has been collected by those who witnessed an event first-hand or who
collected the data themselves for a specific purpose
Results from questionnaires or experiment
Qualitative or quantitative
Observations
Secondary data
Second-hand analysis of pre-existing data
May be analysed in a different way
Interprets data
After statistical operations have been performed on primary data, the results become
secondary data
In some cases, secondary data is gathered before primary data to find out what is already
known about a subject before doing an investigation
Evaluate the use of primary and secondary data in doing research.
Primary data
Reliable ­ replicable
More up to date
Taken directly from target population
Subjective
Need a large sample
Expensive
Time consuming
Secondary data
Saves time
Larger database than individual researcher could hope to collect
Sometimes only resource e.g. historical documents ­ only way to investigate large scale
trends of the past
Researcher cannot personally check data ­ reliability may be questioned
Researcher may have no knowledge of how data was collected ­ no control over it ­ don't
know anything about its accuracy

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Georgia Sadler
Data may be out of date and not suitable for current research
Explain reliability and validity in clinical psychology.
In clinical psychology the goal of diagnosis can only be achieved if it is both consistent and it
reflects an actual disorder.…read more

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Georgia Sadler
Previous research suggested that many children with ADHD also had oppositional defiant
disorder as well as problems with peers and discipline
Etiological validity
The same causes are found in all people who have the same illness
Kim-Cohen et al 2005
Longitudinal study looking at conduct disorder in 5 year olds
The children who received the diagnosis were more likely to have been exposed to risk
factors associated with the disorder
Predictive validity
If a diagnosis is valid, you should be able to correctly…read more

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Georgia Sadler
Giving examples, explain why it is important to consider cross-cultural
issues when diagnosing mental health issues.…read more

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Georgia Sadler
Could automatically diagnose an illness specific to their culture when it may be a common
problem in all cultures
Describe the use of the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual)
Manual used by clinicians to diagnose mental illness
Multi-axial assessment system
DSM V came out in May 2013
A person must exhibit at least five or more of the listen nine characteristics and the
symptoms must be evident for at least the last two weeks for them to be diagnosed with a
disorder
Axis…read more

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Georgia Sadler
Gottesman 1966
Wanted to look at nature aspect of schizophrenia
Secondary data ­ from 1 hospital in the USA concerning twins who had been diagnosed
with schizophrenia
Assessed 16 years of records
Found 68 patients who fitted the criteria
6 dropped out ­ 62 remained
31 males and 31 females
Monozygotic twins ­ 48% of MZ twins both had schizophrenia
Dizygotic twins (non-identical) ­ 17% of DZ twins both had schizophrenia
Most severe cases of schizophrenia ­ concordance rate rose up to 91%…read more

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Georgia Sadler
Only good for positive symptoms ­ cannot say how they feel
Speciesism ­ opinion that a species should look after their own ­ should experiment on
animals to further our species
Anthropomorphism ­ assume an animal is behaving in a certain way for the same
reason(s) a human would
Low ecological validity
Randrup & Munkvad
Aimed to see whether schizophrenia like symptoms could be induced in non-human
animals by giving them amphetamines
Thought amphetamines make schizophrenia worse by releasing more dopamine at central…read more

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Georgia Sadler
Evaluation
Objective measure of abnormality ­ quantitative
Cut off point ­ however, very little room for what is normal and abnormal
Can get treatment if abnormal
IQ test ­ more male dominated
Some behaviours e.g. IQ, being in top 2.…read more

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Georgia Sadler
Flatness of emotions (negative)
Not looking after one's self (negative)
Describe the features and symptoms of anorexia nervosa.…read more

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Role of drugs
Amphetamines lead to an increase in dopamine
Large quantities lead to hallucinations and delusions
If drugs are given to schizophrenics, symptoms get worse
Parkinson's
Parkinson's sufferers have low levels of dopamine
They take L-Dopa which increases dopamine
People with Parkinson's develop schizophrenic symptoms if they take too much L-Dopa
Chlorpromazine reduces symptoms by blocking D2 receptors
Post mortems ­ Falkai et al 1998
Autopsies have found that schizophrenics have a larger than normal amount of dopamine
receptors
Increase of dopamine…read more

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