Full A2 Psychology Unit 3 Revision - Essay Plans

Essay plans on the whole of Unit 3 PsychologyA


   - Biological Rhythms 

   - Relationships

   - Aggression

Ao1, Ao2 and Ao3s/IDA included.

Ao2s set out in the PECS format.

P: Point

E: Evidence

C: Comment/Explain

S: Synopsis 

You can change it about, add your own Ao2s whatever, I hope this helps :D 

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Lea Abi-Akl

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Circadian Rhythms
Rhythms that last about 24 hours

The sleep-wake cycle
- In addition to external cues, there is also an endogenous `clock'
- The internal circadian rhythm is `free running' and works without any
external cues
- There are external cues such as daylight
- These help…

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C: This further supports the idea that the cycle operates without any external cues.

P: Support for the importance of external cues comes from Folkard et al. (1985)
E: 12 participants lived in `temporal isolation' for 3 weeks isolated from natural
light and other time cues. They agreed to go…

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- Known as slow wave sleep (SWS) in stages 3 and 4.
- REM: this is a deep sleep shown as paradoxical sleep', as the brain and eyes
move, but the body is paralyzed.

Basic rest-activity cycle
- The 90-minute sleep cycle is located within a 24-hour rhythm.
- Freidman…

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Endogenous pacemakers: Internal cues
Exogenous zeitgebers: Are external cues that entrain our biological


The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
- Located in the hypothalamus above the optic nerve.
- It obtains info about light through our eyes.
- Albus et al: 2005, states that the SCN is actually a pair…

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P: However, there is evidence to go against the SCN as the main endogenous
E: Kate Aldcroft spent time in a cave, after 25 days her temperature was a 24-hour
rhythm, yet her sleep rhythm was in a 30-hour-cycle.
C: Suggesting that the SCN is not in charge and…

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- Symptoms: Loss of appetite, nausea, fatigue, disorientation, insomnia, mild
- PERFORMANCE DECREMENT- Effects of jetlag found in study of American
Major League baseball teams.
- Generally eastward flights (where there has been a phase advance of the
circadian rhythm, ie. backward shift in…

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E: Jetlag may also be affected by other factors, (other than disruption of biological
rhythms). An individual may sleep badly the night before travel, because of
worry/excitement. Travel itself is also tiring and many holidays include long trips
to the airport before the flight. As well as alcohol, coffee and…

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- One distinguishing feature is that REM sleep for males is accompanied by
orgasm and ejaculation, which is significantly less likely at other ages.

Adulthood and Old Age
- Normal adult sleep is usually 8 hours with 25% in REM sleep.
- Parasomnias are more rare but other sleep disorders…




Have you sat your psychology exams? If so what grade did you receive?



These are wonderful, thank you so much!

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