Responses Keywords


Responses Keywords

  • taxis = a directionally determined response to a stimulus
  • kinesis = a non-directionally determined response to a stimulus 
  • tropism = a positive or negative growth towards or away from a  stimulus, the rate at which is controlled by hormonal growth factors
  • synergism = 2 work together to reinforce the same effect
  • apical = continuous extension of an apex at the roots or shoots
  • lateral bud = extension of the length of side shoots (away from the bud)
  • lateral = extension of the width of columns of roots and shoots 
  • intercalary = extension of the length between nodes of a stem
  • indoleacetic acid (IAA) = type of auxin that increases cell plasticity in plants, and travel by the acid growth hypothesis
  • acid growth hypothesis = protons are actively transported into the cell wall from the cytoplasm, activating enzymes which digest cellulose to make walls more flexible
  • phototropism = shoot growth towards light and root growth inhibition, using IAA
  • gravitropism = inhibition of root growth using IAA, causing roots to grow towards the centre of the Earth
  • pacinian corpuscle = a receptor that responds to mechanical pressure, in many places around the body including skin, tendons and joints; contain a blood vessel, sensory neurone, viscous gel and layers of connective tissue
  • transducer = converts one form of energy to another (e.g mechanical pressure to a generator potential, or light to electrical energy)
  • retina = inner-most layer of the eye, containing eye receptor cells
  • retinal convergence = number of rod cells connected to a bipolar cell
  • rhodopsin = pigment in rod cells which is broken down to create a generator potential
  • visual acuity = sharpness of vision
  • fovea = area of the eye (retina) that light strikes the most, and where cones cells are found
  • iodopsin = pigment that requires high light intensities to break down to produce colour image
  • myogenic = a muscle that initiates its own contractions
  • atrioventricular septum = non-conductive tissue that separates the atria and the ventricles
  • Purkyne tissue = collection of cells making up the Bundle of His that conduct electrical waves
  • medulla oblongata = part of the brain that controls heart rate; divided into an ‘increase’ (sympathetic) and ‘decrease’ (parasympathetic) centre
  • carotid arteries = round in the neck; where chemoreceptors are situated
  • cell body = contains organelles (e.g large amounts of endoplasmic reticulum); associated with the production of proteins and neurotransmitters
  • Schwann cells = provide electrical insulation, nerve regeneration, phagocytosis and the membranes for myelin sheaths 
  • nodes of Ranvier = contractions between adjacent Schwann cells
  • nerve impulse = temporary reversal of the electrical potential difference across the axon membrane
  • polarised =…




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