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Key word Definition
Ecology The study of the interrelationships between organisms and their
Biosphere The life supporting layer of land, air and water that surrounds the
Ecosystem Made up of interacting biotic and abiotic features in a specific area.
They are self-contained functional units.
Community An ecological unit composed of a group of organisms or a
population of different species occupying a particular area, usually
interacting with each other and their environment.
Populations Groups of individuals make up species that group together to form
a population; a group of interbreeding organisms of one species in
Niche The specific area where an organism inhabits.
Biotic factors A factor created by a living thing or any living component within an
environment in which the action of the organism affects the life of
another organism, for example a predator consuming its prey.
Abiotic factors A non-living chemical or physical factor in the environment, such as
soil, pH, forest fire.
Habitat Place where an organism or a biological population normally lives
Microhabitat Smaller units within a habitat that possess unique properties
where new variations of life can exist and thrive due to the unique
conditions that the microhabitat offers.
Interspecific competition A form of competition between members of different species
inhabiting the same ecological area.
Intraspecific competition Competition arising or occurring within a species involving the
members of one species.