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Page 1

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First World War
Why did Russia go to war?
Wants to be seen as a great power
o Needs trade + navy routes into Mediterranean to be powerful
o Germans could block the Turkish Straits (their only way into the
War Plans + Agreements
o 1894 ­ Franco-Russian Alliance…

Page 2

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o Not enough steelworks or explosives factories
o 6,000,000 men with only 4,500,000 rifles
o Soldiers had to pick up weapons from dead comrades
o Soldiers did not have boots or winter coats
o Since generals believed in the bayonet, there was a lack of machine guns
No strategy

Page 3

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February Revolution
Tsar became Commander-in-Chief
Tsar was absent from Petrograd and misinformed by wife
(see above)

Key Features
22nd Feb ­ 40,000 workers from Putilov engineering works went on strike for higher
23rd Feb ­ International Women's Day ­ parades and demonstrations strikes
25th Feb ­ Half…

Page 4

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Provisional Government
Key Features:
Set up in March 1917
Promised to bring about reforms in Russia
Intended to be a temporary govt.
Promised elections for a new Constituent Assembly (a permanent parliament) in
November 1917
First Prime Minister was Prince Lvov
Composed of middle-class politicians
Initially supported by the Bolsheviks…

Page 5

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o Germans may enforce a heavy price if they surrendered
o Govt. also wanted to keep Allies on their side
o But, people wanted it to end since it compounded all their problems
o Plus there was a major defeat in June 1917
60,000 died
o Peasants wanted to…

Page 6

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October Revolution
Key Features/Events
10th Oct 1917
o Lenin returns from exile in Finland
o Persuaded Bolsheviks to carry out revolution
21 Oct 1917

o Army units in Petrograd (340,000 soldiers) promise loyalty to Trotsky and the
MRC (Military Revolutionary Committee)
23 Oct 1917

o Soldiers in main…

Page 7

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o Army hates Prov. Govt. and Kerensky
Prov. Govt. continued the war
Army had many peasants who opposed the war
o Kornilov Revolt
Kornilov (Army Commander) mutinies
Kerensky frees + arms the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks were the saviours because they had agreed to help
Kerensky even though he was the one…

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Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Page 9

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Civil War 1918-1919
Causes of the Civil War
Uprisings broke out against the Bolsheviks in 1918.

The Czech Legion (South East)
o 45,000 Czech soldiers (prisoners-of-war) seized control of the Trans-Siberian
railway in 1918 after Bolsheviks tried to disarm them on 14 May 1918
o Joined the Whites + Began…

Page 10

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No strategy
The armies were small + spread thinly not as effective as the
coordinated Reds in the centre
Insufficient number of troops (only 250,000)
o Conscripted peasants who didn't want Tsar regime
Not loyal Joined the Red Army
Death of Tsar ­ weakened support esp. from the monarchists


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