History notes on the Roaring 20s GCSE

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History Notes: The Roaring 20's
1) Impact of First World War on America:
- Americans felt neutral towards the war, as they hd no interest in Europ, believing
there was no need to get involved. Also, there were mixed nationalities in the USA
e.g. German Americans (wanting a victory for Germany) and the Irish (felt no
sympathy for Britain) and Russia Jews (wanted America to defeat their Tsar). Wilson
knew that if he remained neutral, this would revent a war within his country.
- America joined the war because Germany began attacking submarines on trade
vessels, including passenger ships, some of which included American citizens. Also,
Wilson sympathised for Britain, who America had considerable economic links with-by
1917,he had loaned $2 billion to thr allies including factories. Also, Germany annoyed
Americans by asking Mexico for support against America
- Wilson made a Peace proposal, to keep peace between countries and prevent
further disputes/wars. From collective security, Wilson wanted coutries tostand in
the face of potential aggression
- At War- Wilson through war, intended on bringing Europe libery under an autocratic
government government, whereas Britain and France wanted to destroy Germany.
The US intervention into war was significant because it revitalised allied armies along
the western front. US introduced conscription because many young men were
reluctant to go to war, and the US generally showed little interest to war
2) Isolationism:
- After World War One, America decided to follow isolationism (not get involved in
world affairs)
- Why people wanted isolationism:
- Many Americans upset by loss of American lives, over 100,000 soldiers killed
- Being dragged into another war would be costly
- Debates over isolationism:
Woodrow Wilson Henry Cabot-Lodge
President Pro-isolationism
Anti isolationism- America had Republican
intervened to make the world a
better place
Democrat
Consequences of Isolationism:
Republican Warren Harding won 1921 election, with largest majority in
history, using the slogan `America First,' promoting isolationism. This is what
made people vote for him
USA never ratified ToV (never joined LoN)
Poor relations with European countries- shut itself from the rest of the world
US began to capture European economic markets, overtook Germany in
chemical products
3) Tariffs introduced:
- The American government made sure that foeign foods did not compete with
home-produced goods.

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Fordney McCumber Tariff put high taves on all foreign-made goods in the
USA, to protect American industry by making US goods cheaper. Included farm
products and helped farmers. Rate raised 32 times by republican presidents.
European countries retaliated by putting tariffs on American goods. Ended
Wilson's policy of free trade with the USA
4) Mass Production:
- Causes:
- Use of modern production techniques and electric motors replaced steam.
Assembly lines were used.
- Mass production used to make consumer products e.g.…read more

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Charlie Chaplin and Douglas Fairbanks in adventure
films
- Until 1927 all movies were silent
- Became a multibillion dollar success, 110m per week was going by 1929
Jazz:
popular amongst youngpeople
came from black people whomoved to cities
popular with both black and white people
older generation believed Jazz corrupted the young
Radio:
Almost everyone in the USA had and listened to the radio, 10 m owned by
1929
Could be purchased in instalments if people couldn't afford them
Choice of programmes grew quickly,…read more

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Catholics that soke either English or German. There was the belief that the recent
immigrants were inferior and less educated
- Policies made to regulate and control immigration:
1917- law to impose literacy tests on immigrants- favoured by Northern and
Western Europeans, who were mostly white and protestant., hwoever ther was
fear that Europeans would flood USA
1921- congress passed the Emergency Quota Act- restricted number of
people admitted into US, based on nationality.…read more

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Governor of Kansas John St John made Kansas the first state to outlaw
alcohol
Economic:
Mre money spent on liquor than education
Business leaders thought banning alcohol would make their workers more
productive-stop them taking days off work
Would prevent accidents and illnesses in the workplace, increasing profits
Would led to the end of poverty,as working class men could focus more on
work
Social:
Saloons were viewed, especially by women, as a place of evil.…read more

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