From second to third reich: Germany, 1918-45

A whole revision guide on AS level history about hitler and his rise to power but also about Germany 1918-45 

i hope this helps 

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  • Created on: 14-05-12 19:41
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The fall of the Third Reich: impact of the second
World War on Germany and reasons for defeat.
13/05/2012 16:43
Understand how and why the Second Reich tried first to
reform itself and then collapsed in November 1918.
Germany's leading generals, Ludendorff and Hindenburg, told a
stunned Kaiser Wilhelm II that the war was lost.
Simultaneously, they urged him to appoint a new government
made up of representatives of the biggest parties in the
Reichstag.
Reluctantly the Kaiser agreed. At a stroke, Germany became a
parliamentary democracy.
The Kaiser would no longer have the power to appoint and
dismiss ministers: governments would instead be answerable
to Reichstag. The Kaiser was to be nothing more than a
ceremonial head of state.
The New Chancellor was Prince Max of Baden.
However, the `revolution from above' was quickly overtaken by
events; when Prince Max's government tried to open ceasefire
talks with Americans, it was told that Wilhelm II would have to
step down before serious negotiations could begin.
Inside Germany, demands for the Kaiser's abdication grew
larger.
Admiral Scheer called abruptly and without asking Max attacked
British. This recklessness led to the next phase of the
revolution.
Sailors refused to obey orders and mutinied and no move to put
down the Kiel mutiny was made.
On 9 November 1918 Kaiser abdicated. His departure opened
the way for the armistice which came into force two days later.
Recognising that German socialists were now in control, Prince
Max also stood aside. Ebert was the most influential member of
the six-man government of socialists.
This was the interim government and got the country ready for
the making of new, permanent arrangements for the
government of Germany.
Understand the Weimar constitution of 1919
It was an ultra democratic constitution.
The national assembly went to great lengths to ensure that as
much power as possible was still in the hands of the public.
It was a federal constitution. In federations, political authority
is split between a national government and a number of state
or provincial governments.
The intention of a federal constitution is to avoid undue
concentration of power in any one place and to give localities
some control over their own affairs.

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The fall of the Third Reich: impact of the second
World War on Germany and reasons for defeat.
13/05/2012 16:43
At a national government level, the constitution as a mixture of
a British-style parliamentary system and an American-style
presidential system.
In normal circumstances Germany was to be governed by
ministers responsible for Reichstag, but the president was
given powers of his own, including the power to rule by decree
in emergencies.…read more

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The fall of the Third Reich: impact of the second
World War on Germany and reasons for defeat.
13/05/2012 16:43
Germany opted for passive resistance and brought the Ruhr to
a standstill and preventing France from pillaging its wealth.
Industrial workers were instructed to go on strike and they
were still going to be compensated for their lost wages by the
government.…read more

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The fall of the Third Reich: impact of the second
World War on Germany and reasons for defeat.
13/05/2012 16:43
and was intended to be a final settlement of the reparations
issue.
The emergence of some degree of prosperity and
stability in the next five years.
Rid of hyperinflation and no longer isolated within the
international community, Germany became highly attractive to
foreign investors.
Money flowed into the country especially from the USA.…read more

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The fall of the Third Reich: impact of the second
World War on Germany and reasons for defeat.
13/05/2012 16:43
Understand the pattern of Nazi Party
development and in particular the reasons for the
rapid growth in electoral support after 1928.…read more

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The fall of the Third Reich: impact of the second
World War on Germany and reasons for defeat.
13/05/2012 16:43
Be aware of opposing parties and why ultimately
the opponents of the NSDAP failed to stop Nazi's
appointment as Chancellor in January 1933.
The conservatives did the most to open the way for Nazism-
they were closer to the Nazis in outlook and after 1930s were
more than willing to do business with Hitler.…read more

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The fall of the Third Reich: impact of the second
World War on Germany and reasons for defeat.
13/05/2012 16:43
Be aware of the features of Nazi social and
economic policies.
Social Policies
1933- Dismissal of Jewish and `unreliable' teachers from
schools
Introduced of the Marriage loan scheme
Baldur von Schirach named `Youth Leader of the German
Reich'
1936- Law on the Hitler Youth introduction
Catholic Youth Association outlawed.
1938- Introduction of the Mother Cross award.
There were financial incentives to have children were offered.…read more

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The fall of the Third Reich: impact of the second
World War on Germany and reasons for defeat.
13/05/2012 16:43
But it was bad news for ordinary Germans; it meant fewer food
imports and food shortages.
1936- Launching of the `Four Year Plan' under Goering's
direction; Hitler wanted to get Germany ready for war in four
years. Schacht was worried about this though.
1937- Schacht's resignation as minister of Economics although
he still stayed in government.…read more

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The fall of the Third Reich: impact of the second
World War on Germany and reasons for defeat.
13/05/2012 16:43
Be aware of how this latter aim translated into
the escalating persecution of minorities, in
particular the Jews.
Gypsies would exclude from the Volksgemeinschaft were
persecuted as they were seen as `non-Aryans'.
Disabled people were excluded from the Volksgemeinschaft
also because they were not Aryan, the Nazis maintained that
they were unfit to belong in the `national community'.…read more

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The fall of the Third Reich: impact of the second
World War on Germany and reasons for defeat.
13/05/2012 16:43
Understand something of the impact of the war
on Germany and on the lives of its citizens.
The human cost of war was immense.
Between 1939 and 1945 16 million men served in the ranks of
the German army. Over 3 million were killed and 1.5 million
were taken prisoner.
By 1943 and 1945 Germany came under intense attack from air.…read more

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