English language:key theorists

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  • Created by: wilby99
  • Created on: 07-10-15 14:07
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  • English language theorists
    • gender
      • Jenny cheshire
        • Women use standard English more than men
          • women are more status conscious and expected to behave better
        • men drop their h's more than women and say ain't as opposed to isn't
          • women are more status conscious and expected to behave better
        • boys gained respect from others by acting tough and using non standard english as a part of this (covert prestige)
      • Tannen
        • status v support
        • conflict v comprimise
        • orders v proposals
        • women can't break through the glass ceiling because they speak differently to men
      • Zimmerman and West
        • in single sex conversations, there rarely any interruptions
        • in mixed sex conversations there where a lot of interruptions (mainly male) and overlaps ( all male)
        • women ended up speaking less than men
      • Pamela Fishman
        • women use more tag questions to sustain conversation
        • men did not respond well to declaratives as they perceived themselves as being dominant
      • Eakins and Eakins
        • men spoke for longer suggesting they were in power
    • Power
      • Wareing
        • two types of power: influential and instrumental
        • social power: held as being a part of a dominant social group
        • personal power: held as having a role in certain parts of an organisation
        • political power:held by those with the backing of the law
      • Hornyak
        • the shift from personal to work talk is always initiated by the highest ranking person in the room
      • Homes and Stubbe
        • Repressive discourse strategy
          • powerful person: avoids FTAs, strengthens social ties, show power by directing conversation
        • Power is used by employers as a way of performing their occupational role
        • Using power as part of a role: 'doing power'
      • Howard Giles
        • accommodation theory: convergence and divergence
      • fairclough
        • power behind language: contextual
        • power in language: methods and features
        • ideology: meanings and attitudes displayed in language(we call them terrorists, they say freedom fighters)
        • Epistemic modality: suggests possibilities: you could do that
        • Deontic modality:displays certainty: you will do that
    • Language verieties
      • Sinclair and Couldtard: teacher talk
        • three part class room talk
          • elicitation, response, feedback
        • three main functions
          • informative, directive, elicitation
      • Kerswell and Williams (Milton Keynes)
        • children's speech in was different to parents + getting closer to a watered down cockney accent
        • possibly because of migration or because it was perceived as cool through popular TV porgrams
      • Sapir-Whorf
        • Said that the language and words we use control how we think (hopi indians-no tenses-different concept of time?)
        • if language controls our thought it would never change and we would run out of new ideas
        • language must at least influence how we think
      • Labov
        • Martha's vineyard: created a special group identity
        • New York department stores: higher end stores pronounced diphthongs differently SOCIAL STRATIFICATION OF PRONOUNCIATION
      • Berstein
        • elaborated and restricted codes are determined by our social group
      • spoken language
        • Grice
          • Quantity, quality,relevance, manner
        • Hallidays taxonomy
          • Instrumental, regulatory, interactional, personal, heuristic, imaginative, representational
      • Jennifer Coates: slang
        • used for social group exclusion
        • spread has been helped by social media
        • used for group affiliation
        • to be successful it has to have a function
        • needs to be prestigious, usually covertly

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