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North Topeka, Kansas (South)
· Year ­ 1954
· Involvement ­ Oliver Brown + NAACP + Thurgood
Marshall VS. The Board of Education, Topeka Kansas
· Details ­ Kansas was one of 17 states where schools
were legally segregated. Oliver Brown wanted to send
his child to a white only school and the NAACP backed
· Results ­ Chief Justice Earl Warren judged that
`seperate but equal' education was harmful to children
and against the 14th amendment. The supreme court
agreed and schools were desegregated against
Eisenhower's wishes.…read more

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Little Rock Arkansas Upper South
· Year ­ 1957
· Involvement ­ NAACP + Eisenhower's federal help
VS. Governor Orval Faubus
· Details ­ Faubus refused to desegregate in the
state capital of Arkansas for the white vote in an
upcoming election. He ordered the National
Guard to keep black students out.
· Eisenhower had to send federal help for the first
time to help the black students and protect them
in the school. Slowly the school was intergrated by
1960.…read more

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Civil Rights Act
· Year ­ 1957
· Involvement ­ Eisenhower's administration VS. Strom
Thurmond + white racists
· Details ­ tried to help black people vote as 80% of
Southern blacks couldn't. It was much weakened in
congress as Strom Thurmond filibustered the bill for 24
hours to try and kill the bill.
· Results ­ it was passed but did little for the black vote.
It established a Civil Rights Division in the Justice
Department and a Civil Rights Commission to help race
relations. It pleased some blacks but angered many.…read more

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Civil Rights Act
· Year ­ 1960
· Involvement ­ Eisenhower VS. Democrats (in
election year working for black vote)
· Details ­ made it a federal crime to obstruct court
ordered desegregation and established penalties
for obstructing black voters.
· Largely ineffective as it only added 3% more black
voters in the 1960 elections but it did inspire more
blacks to work for better legislation…read more

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Martin Luther King…read more

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