First 496 words of the document:
CIVIL RIGHTS - SUMMARY
IMPROVEMENTS BY 45? (Summary of 1870's - 1940's).
13th amendment = slavery made illegal.
14th amendment = Gain citizenship rights, regardless of race.
15th amendment = Right to vote for all, regardless of race.
Homestead Act = right to own property, regardless of race.
Share Cropping = joint ownership rights of farmland helps B's get Ec. independence.
Black Colleges, schools, church communities (strong in S.) Funeral Funds, etc.
Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Dubois
Jazz Age. Growing B identity.
Slaughterhouse Decision = no protection of 14th amendment.
Grandfather Clauses = Must be literate, own land, be 2 generations since 15th amendment to vote.
Compromise = allowed S.states to make Jim Crow Laws. Segregation.
KKK, Nativist groups, White racists, B's considered inferior.
Ghettos in the N. states.
o Plessy v. Ferguson:
In 1896, said that "separate but equal" is ok.
IMPROVEMENTS THROUGH 44/45?
N. B's experience segregation for 1st time in S. training camps.
B's experience equality, being heroes, in Europe, want the same at home. (double V)
B's radicalised by the war. Won freedom for Europe want freedom for US too.
Nazi extermination camps discovered. Made racism look bad (used to be the norm).
Roosevelt strongly believed in freedom of speech, religion, etc.
Industrial boom (post-depression + wartime) = more B. employment opportunities.
Order 9980 = Equal treatment in employment. (Underfunded and not enforced. Failed).
Order 9981 = Desegregation of the Armed forces. Equal treatment.
He cooperated with the NAACP. 1st Pres. to do so.
Changed Democrats to less racist party. S. members split away (Dixiecrats).
Desegregated the audience at his inauguration.
Fair deal programme = housing in deprived urban areas. (Underfunded, unorganised, and failed).
Black squadrons kept secret usually.
Still De Jure inequality. Soc. and Ec.
Smith v. Alwright 44 = B's allowed to vote in primary elections. Whites still `discouraged' it. (Mobs)
Sweatt v. Painter 50 = Uni's ordered to accept Black student. Little impact.
Brown v. Board of education of Topeska 54 = overruled P. v. F. ordered desegregation of schools.
Brown II = Desegregation of schools must occur with "all deliberate speed". Still no impact.
White backlash to Brown II. E.g. privatising schools to avoid desegregation.
20% of Congress signed the "Southern Manifesto". Opposing desegregation.
S. Authorities resisted change.
CORE and NAACP had not been able to perfect their tactics.
Eisenhower claimed the "hearts and minds" of American could not be changed by law.
o Good for CR movements:
USA was protecting freedom in Korea/Nam. Why not at home too? (Related to WW2 `Double V').
Changed attitude. Whites were less racist. More sympathetic.
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Media was much more developed. This + sympathetic whites = results.
o Bad for CR movements:
Many groups were tabooed, hated, banned due to McCarthyism/Red Scare.
Montgomery Bus Boycott 55/56 = NAACP organised (MLK's 1st). No change of Law.
Browder v. Gayle 56 = bus desegregation. (M. v. V. already De Facto desegregated Interstate ones)
Little Rock Campaign 57 = enrolling B's to school. Eisenhower forced to call National Guard to help.…read more
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Patrol the Pigs campaign: following cops and teaching B's their civil rights to reduce brutality and
Survival programmes: Free breakfast and school for B. children. Free healthcare centres and `liberation'
schools. Funded by local businesses and celebs. E.g. Jimi Hendrix. Influenced Red and Brown power.
FBI had poor relations with them. Leaders were also frequently jailed. = ineffective organisation/co-op.
Some members were criminal or very violent and absorbed too much media attention.
A Black Identity emerged for the first time.…read more