Slides in this set
FUNCTIONALISM-STRUCTURAL THEORY MARXISM-STRUCTURAL THEORY
· Consensus theory. · Conflict theory.
· Macro approach-they look at the role of institutions, and
· Macro approach-they look at the role of argue each institution doesn't meets the functional pre-
institutions, and argue each institution requisites of the society.
meets the functional pre-requisites of the · Believe in class conflict-conflict between upper & lower
society. · Believe in todays capitalistic society, there is conflict
· They believe in social solidarity and a between the businesses- upper class (bourgeoisie ) &
lower class (proletariats).
stable society. · The proletariats are exploited by the bourgeoisie.
· They disagree with dysfunctions. · Exploitation increases the social class gap.
· They believe in value consensus. · However, the proletariats don't realise they're being
exploited- false class consciousness.
· They recognise change as evolutionary. · But when they realise they get collective power (strikes)-
· They are positivists-institutions depend on class consciousness.
each other for survival (like organs of a · Thus, society has gone through a revolution-leads to a
state of communism (no class conflict). This is the aim of
human body). the Marxists.
FEMINISM-BOTH STRUCTURAL WEBERISM-SOCIAL ACTION THEORY
& SOCIAL ACTION THEORY
· Max Weber.
· Want equal rights for women. · Observes the behaviour of individuals
· They look at institutions (e.g. schools), and how they effect society-
as well as individuals (women). interactionists.
· They believe men are the dominant · Macro theory.
gender, so women experience · Also known as `interpretive
patriarchy. perspective'-focus on interactions of
· They believe gender inequality and individuals and the motives/meanings
exploitation is present in todays behind actions.…read more
(F) DURKHEIM-SOLIDARITY AND SKILLS (F) PARSONS-MERITOCRACY
Creating social solidarity. · School prepares us to move from the
· Education creates solidarity by transmitting the
family into the wider society-due to
society culture (shared norms & beliefs).
· E.g. teaching history to gain a sense of meritocracy.
heritage. · Within family the child is judged by
· Schools=miniature society-prepares us for the `particularistic standards'-rules that
wider society-this creates social solidarity.
Teaching specialist skills:
apply only to that child.
· There is a complex division of labour within · In school and wider society they are
industry (more than one person is needed to judged by `universalistic standards'.
produce an item-different specialities) · This prepares children for the wider
· Educations teaches the skills needed to take
part in the social division of labour.
society-maintains social solidarity.
(F) DAVIS & MOORE- ROLE ALLOCATION (F) STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
· Positions within society require
different talents to ensure society
functions efficiently. Strengths: Weaknesses:
· Society is meritocratic. · Some people may
· The most able students=most · Highlights importance not have equal
of role allocation. chance
demanding jobs. · Durkheim believes (background,
· The education system help they teach specialist
skills and make them ·
allocate those with high ability to feel they belong talents may be
the highest paid most demanding