AS Level Sociology - Unit 2 (Education and Research methods) Key Words flashcards

Flashcards for Unit 2 sociology (Education and Research Methods).

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Self fufilling prophecy
Student gets labelled and accepts the label, regardless of its accuracy
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Labelling theory
A sociological theory which examines how the identity and behaviour of individuals is shaped by labels other people use
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New vocationalism
Movement from 1980s aimed to focus school curriculum to better meet needs of business and industry
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Stratification
Way individuals are divided into levels/strata of status e.g. class
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Achieved status
Status awarded/earned e.g. jobs, educational qualifications
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Ascribed status
Status assigned at birth e.g. based on biological differences, family characteristics etc
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Universalisitc standards/judgement
Set of rules applied uniformly to all members of social group
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Particularistic standards
Set of rules specific to an individual or group
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Legitimation
Process of making inequalities and exploitation seem fair and just
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Affective relationships
People help each other out of love and affection e.g. in family
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Instrumental relationships
Based on mutual self interest e.g. shop assistants help customers as their wages are dependent upon people buying things
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Conflict perspectives
Perspectives that emphasise the way society is maintained to benefit one group at the expense of another e.g. Marxism and Feminism
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Consensus perspectives
Emphasise the positive aspects of society, how it is maintained for the 'common good' e.g. Functionalism
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Anomie
A state of chaos in which society lacks shared set of values and norms to guide behaviour
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Anti-school sub culture
Groups of students who actively oppose the norms and values of the school
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Pupil adaptations
8 different responses by groups of pupils to the culture of a school. Coined by Peter Woods e.g. total subscription through to open rebellion
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Curriculum
Subjects taught in school
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Hidden curriculum
Things learnt by pupils without them being taught as part of the official curriculum e.g. punctuality and respect
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Affluence
How rich/wealthy someone is
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Cultural deprivation
Lacking the cultural capital to succeed
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Material deprivation
The lack of material goods/possessions to succeed educationally e.g. lack of space and equipment due to poverty
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Attainment
How much is achieved e.g. educational qualifications
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Immediate gratification
Emphasis on taking rewards as soon as possible e.g. leaving school at 16 to earn money
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Deferred gratification
Putting off or waiting to gain the reward in order to gain greater ones in the future
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Fatalism
Resigning oneself to one's fate and seeing little chance of social mobility
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Social mobility
Movement between social classes often gained via education
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Linguistic deprivation
Inability to know and use 'standard' English/the use of restricted code instead of elaborated code
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Feminisation of education
Occured as a result of more female teachers and more focus on discussion, creativity and coursework in schools and curriculum
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Forster Education Act
1870 - first education act introducing elementary schools
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Butler Act 1944
Introduction of tripartite system and secondary schooling for everyone
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Tripartite system
Introduction of 3 types of secondary school - grammar, secondary modern and technical. Children assigned according to the 11+ exam.
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11+ examination
Examination which children took to determine which secondary school they would attend under the tripartite system
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Comprehensive
Type of school where pupils of all abilities and background attend instead of attending different schools
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Education Reform Act 1988
This introduced market principles to education to create competition between schools to raise standards
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National curriculum
Subjects and subject content that must be studied by all children in all state schools - part of ERA 1988
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OFSTED
School inspections carried out to assess standard of education, part of marketisation of education
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League tables
Tables published annually based on examination results, used to judge schools by parents etc
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Catchment area
Area in which children are able to attend a particular school
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Banding
Grouping of pupils based on setting and/or streaming
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Parity of esteem
The idea that all school types/courses should be different but equal
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Underachievement
Not achieving full potential
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Ethnocentricism
Bias towards white, middle class culture
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Innate ability
Ability that is inborn
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Compensatory education
Positive discrimination to make up for the deficiencies resulting from poverty/poor background
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Meritocracy
Society that places and rewards people on merit, ability and effort. The idea of equal opportunity
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External reward
Returns based on financial re-numeration not internal factor such as enjoyment
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Labelling theory

Back

A sociological theory which examines how the identity and behaviour of individuals is shaped by labels other people use

Card 3

Front

New vocationalism

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Stratification

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Achieved status

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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