Edexcel RE - Peace and Conflict Notes

A summary of the third unit of Edexcel RE: Peace and Conflict

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Peace and Conflict
Aggression ­ attacking without being provoked.
Bullying ­ intimidating/frightening people weaker than yourself
Conflict resolution ­ bringing a fight or a struggle to a peaceful conclusion
Exploitation ­ taking advantage of a weaker group
Forgiveness ­ Stopping blaming someone and/or pardoning them for what they have done wrong
Just war ­ A war that is fought for the right reasons and in the right way
Pacifism ­ The belief that all disputes should be settled by peaceful means
Reconciliation ­ Bringing people together who are opposed to each other
Respect ­ Treating a person or their feelings with consideration
The United Nations ­ an international body set up to promote world peace and cooperation
Weapons of Mass Destruction ­ Weapons that can destroy large areas and numbers of people
World Peace ­ the ending of war throughout the whole world (the basic aim of the United Nations)
Why do wars occur?
To support former co-religionists eg. 1990's Bosans and Kosovo, Serbia invaded to protect Orthodox Christians
mistreated by Muslims
If the majority of an area is one religion, but the whole country as a whole is one another.
Differences within a religion.
Wanting or needing another country's resources eg. Iraq oil reserves
Economic problems eg. Zimbabwe led to mass migration to South Africa.
Nationality and Ethnicity
A belief that each ethnic group should have its own country.
A belief that minority Ethnic groups should be removed from the country.
Tensions where countries are artificially created through colonialism.
Ideological and political differences
Political groups fighting for power ­ Conga Democratic supported by Uganda & Rwonda, other by Zimbabwe, Angola
and Namibia.
Uniting countries for ideological reasons eg. 1949 communist North Korea invaded South Korea so the country could
be united under Communism.
Explain why the United Nations is important for world peace.
Impose Sanctions
Banning trade, cultural links or communications on countries threatening world peace.
Authorise use of force
Member states can use force to stop an aggressor
Run the ICC
Based in Hague
Ensures international laws are upheld
Prosecutes anyone committing war crimes (violations of laws or customs )
Send the UN Peacekeeping Force
To prevent the outbreak of conflict or spill over of conflict over borders.
To stabilise conflict situations after a ceasefire to create an environment for the parties to reach a lasting peace
To assist in putting peace agreements into place.
To lead states or territories to stable government based on democratic principles and economic development after
they have been in conflict.
Explain how religious organisations work for world peace
Public debates
Organising public debates on the horrors of war and conflict.
Encouraging followers to support political parties opposed to war.
The more people learn about the horrors of war, the more likely they are to vote for peace.
Making public statements and organising protests about war eg. Iraq and Darfur
Public opinion could be changed and governments take note of public opinion.
Interfaith conferences
Organising and attending interfaith conferences to help religions work together to promote world peace.
Many conflicts caused by religious differences and if religions work together for peace, it is less likely that these
types of conflicts will occur.
Working for economic justice and global recognition of human rights to remove the causes of war.
Religious groups giving the poor of the world a decent standard of living.
Persuading governments of the world to respect human rights, could stop wars started when one country feels it
fellow ethnic group in another country is being treated badly.
Religious Organisations
Christian: The World Council of Christians, Pax Christi and Christian Aid.
Muslim: Islamic Relief and The Muslim Peace Fellowship.

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Just War
The Just War Theory
St. Thomas Aquinas was a Christian monk who wrote a list of rules to be met before a Christian could go to war. There were similar
ideas established in Islam, Hinduism, Judaism and Buddhism much earlier. The rules ar:
1. It has to be authorised by your country.
2. It must have a just cause and be done for the right reasons.
3.…read more

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Christians should treat anyone in trouble as they would treat Jesus ­ eg. Parable of the Sheep and Goats. No
Christian would bully Jesus and so they should not bully anyone.
All the Christian Churches teach that Christians should protect human rights. The right to live free from fear is a
basic human right, and so bullying denies the victim's human rights, therefore Christians should not bully.…read more


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