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Edexel IGCSE Chemistry Revision Notes




IGCSE Chemistry

Triple Award

Revision Guide
Topic Page
Introduction to chemistry 1-6
Atomic Structure 7-8
Structure and Bonding ­ Ionic Bonding 9-10
Structure and Bonding ­ Covalent and Metallic Bonding 11-14
Organic Chemistry - Alkanes 14-17
Organic Chemistry ­ Alkenes / Addition Polymerisation 18-19
Organic…

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Edexel IGCSE Chemistry Revision Notes




-1-

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Edexel IGCSE Chemistry Revision Notes


States of matter
SOLIDS: (particles in contact; attractions hold them in fixed positions)
· have definite shape and volume


LIQUIDS: (particles in contact, and attract each other, but are free to move around)
· have a definite volume
· they take the shape of a…

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Edexel IGCSE Chemistry Revision Notes


Kinetic Theory
The properties of solids, liquids and gases can be explained by kinetic theory.
Kinetic theory states that matter is made of tiny particles that move all the time.
The main points of the theory are;
· All matter is made of tiny, invisible,…

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Edexel IGCSE Chemistry Revision Notes


Heating and Cooling Curves
We can use kinetic theory to explain changes in state when substances are heated or cooled.


D
Temp


B
C


A
time (steady heating)

· In a solid the particles are held in position by bonding to their neighbours.
(A on…

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Edexel IGCSE Chemistry Revision Notes


Elements, Mixtures and Compounds
THE ATOMIC THEORY
This theory assumes that all elements are made up of "atoms". If you were to divide a lump of
an element into smaller and smaller pieces you would eventually come to a piece that could not
be divided…

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Edexel IGCSE Chemistry Revision Notes


Separation Techniques
1. SOLID & LIQUID
(a) If the solid has not dissolved in the liquid (i.e. is suspended in the liquid), the two
substances can be separated by FILTRATION.
The liquid filtrate passes through, the undissolved solid residue stays on the paper.

(b) If…

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Edexel IGCSE Chemistry Revision Notes
3. SOLID & SOLID Usually one of the following methods can be used:-

(a) DISSOLVING: Find a solvent that will dissolve one solid but not the other.
It is often necessary to heat in order to help the process of dissolving. Then filter, wash the…

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Edexel IGCSE Chemistry Revision Notes

Atomic Structure
Atoms are built up from three "fundamental particles":
Particle Relative Mass Relative charge
Proton 1 +1
Neutron 1 0
Electron 1/1860 ­1

Each atom consists of a very small, very dense nucleus, which contains all the heavy particles (protons and
neutrons), surrounded by…

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Edexel IGCSE Chemistry Revision Notes
Electrons are arranged in shells.
The first shell can hold up to two electrons, the second up to eight, and the third up to eight.
Thus an atom of Li (with three electrons) will have two in the first shell, and one left over in…

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