Edexcel iGCSE Chemistry Revison Guide

A* Quality Revision Notes for the Edexcel iGCSE Chemistry Specification. They cover everything, from atoms to Bond-Energy Calculations.

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Edexel IGCSE Chemistry Revision Notes
IGCSE Chemistry
Triple Award
Revision Guide
Topic Page
Introduction to chemistry 1-6
Atomic Structure 7-8
Structure and Bonding ­ Ionic Bonding 9-10
Structure and Bonding ­ Covalent and Metallic Bonding 11-14
Organic Chemistry - Alkanes 14-17
Organic Chemistry ­ Alkenes / Addition Polymerisation 18-19
Organic Chemistry ­ Alcohols / Condensation Polymerisation 20-22
Calculations 23-32
Periodic Table 33-39
Reactivity Series and Metal Extraction 40-44
Electrolysis 45-48
Energetics 49-51
Acids, Bases, Salts and Neutralisation 52-58
Preparing and Analysing Salts 59-63
Rates 64-65
Equilibria and the Haber Process 66-70

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Edexel IGCSE Chemistry Revision Notes
States of matter
SOLIDS: (particles in contact; attractions hold them in fixed positions)
· have definite shape and volume
LIQUIDS: (particles in contact, and attract each other, but are free to move around)
· have a definite volume
· they take the shape of a container
GASES: (particles widely separated; little or no attraction; move freely until they collide)
· spread out (diffuse) and into all the space that is available and will mix completely
with any other gas(es) in…read more

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Edexel IGCSE Chemistry Revision Notes
Kinetic Theory
The properties of solids, liquids and gases can be explained by kinetic theory.
Kinetic theory states that matter is made of tiny particles that move all the time.
The main points of the theory are;
· All matter is made of tiny, invisible, moving particles.
· The particles move all the time. The higher the temperature the faster they move.
· Heavier particles move more slowly than light ones at a given temperature.…read more

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Heating and Cooling Curves
We can use kinetic theory to explain changes in state when substances are heated or cooled.
time (steady heating)
· In a solid the particles are held in position by bonding to their neighbours.
(A on the graph).
· As the solid is warmed the particles vibrate but cannot move.
(Between A and B on the graph).…read more

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Edexel IGCSE Chemistry Revision Notes
Elements, Mixtures and Compounds
This theory assumes that all elements are made up of "atoms". If you were to divide a lump of
an element into smaller and smaller pieces you would eventually come to a piece that could not
be divided any further - a single ATOM of the element. Atoms are therefore very small. We can
see this if we dilute a solution of potassium manganate(VI) many times.…read more

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Edexel IGCSE Chemistry Revision Notes
Separation Techniques
(a) If the solid has not dissolved in the liquid (i.e. is suspended in the liquid), the two
substances can be separated by FILTRATION.
The liquid filtrate passes through, the undissolved solid residue stays on the paper.
(b) If the solid has dissolved in the liquid, forming a solution:-
(i) If only the solid is required, it is obtained by EVAPORATION.
(ii) If the liquid is required, it is obtained by DISTILLATION.…read more

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Edexel IGCSE Chemistry Revision Notes
3. SOLID & SOLID Usually one of the following methods can be used:-
(a) DISSOLVING: Find a solvent that will dissolve one solid but not the other.
It is often necessary to heat in order to help the process of dissolving. Then filter, wash the residue on the
filter-paper with a little of the solvent, and dry it. To obtain the second solid (now in solution, in the
filtrate), evaporate the filtrate, as in 1(b)(i) above.…read more

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Edexel IGCSE Chemistry Revision Notes
Atomic Structure
Atoms are built up from three "fundamental particles":
Particle Relative Mass Relative charge
Proton 1 +1
Neutron 1 0
Electron 1/1860 ­1
Each atom consists of a very small, very dense nucleus, which contains all the heavy particles (protons and
neutrons), surrounded by orbiting electrons (which take up most of the volume). Atoms are represented as;
mass number 23
proton number 11
All atoms of a particular element have the same no. of protons. e.g.…read more

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Edexel IGCSE Chemistry Revision Notes
Electrons are arranged in shells.
The first shell can hold up to two electrons, the second up to eight, and the third up to eight.
Thus an atom of Li (with three electrons) will have two in the first shell, and one left over in the second shell.…read more


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