Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
Ecosystems and rural environments
Vocab
- Biosphere: contains all the world's plant and animal life
- Biodiversity: variety of life in the world/a particular habitat/ecosystem
- Biome: plant and animal community covering a large area of the Earth's surface
- Primary productivity: greatest amount of living matter produced by rainfall…

Page 2

Preview of page 2
Altitude
Temperature decreases as altitude increases mountains colder than lowlands (1ºC lost per
100m of height)

Prevailing winds and ocean currents
- Land heats faster in Summer and cools faster in Winter than the sea areas inland have
warmer Summers and cooler Winters than coastal areas
- Winds blowing from…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
Ecosys tems
Physical components
- Water- rain or in soil
- Air- provides O and CO
- Solar energy- source of energy, light and heat
- Rocks- permeable or impermeable. Provide nutrients
- Soils- vary in depth, acidity, nutrients, fertility
Inputs Stores Outputs
- Gases - Plants - Eroded soil…

Page 4

Preview of page 4
Recycling of nut rient s
Biomass
KEY Trees/organisms
Nutrients taken
Store die. Leaves fall Leaching some
up by plants
Nutrient nutrients lost
transfer
Input
Output Litter Soil
Weathering of
Plants/leaves parent rock and
Surface run-off decompose rainfall some
nutrients removed nutrients released nutrients added
Biomass
- =Total amount of organic…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
Black/dark brown
- Found in middle latitudes of both crumb structure
hemispheres (e.g. Prairie in North
America, Pampas in Argentina, Steppe in Asia, B horizon often absent
Eastern Europe) in chernozems- only deep
- Account for 1.8% of total continental A horizon visible
land area on Earth
- From Russian…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
Aquifers
What?
Water-bearing rock which readily transmits groundwater to wells and springs. Wells can be
drilled into them so water can be pumped out. Normally replenished/recharged by rainfall

Extracting water without a pump- artesian wells
Sometimes porous rock which has tilted into the earth is surrounded by a less porous…

Page 7

Preview of page 7
Characteris t ics of rural environment s

Factor Characteristic

Landscape Open spaces, scattered settlements, farming, green spaces

Population density Low compared to urban areas (can be as high as in towns but in a
compartmentalised way in some parts of the world, e.g. Bangladesh)

Employment Largely primary sector (involves changing…

Page 8

Preview of page 8
- National Park Authorities advised by: national park officer, specialists in ecology/agriculture/
archeology, conservation

The Lake District (see case study sheet)
- Designated as National Park in 1951 (largest in England)
- Almost 16 million visitors per year who spend over £900 million per year (as of 2009)
- Tourists…

Page 9

Preview of page 9
Farming types
Arable (Crop growing) Pastoral (livestock rearing)
Market gardening (N. Kent)- near main Upland sheep farming (Lake District)- cool
towns, flat land, soils are easy to work, climate (1000mm+ annually), poor soils,
cool climate (500-750mm annually), extensive farming, steep + rugged hills
intensive farming, small-scale machinery, unsuitable for machinery,…

Page 10

Preview of page 10
Success Problems

Irrigated land yields 13 million tonnes of crops Water rapidly removed by high temperatures
(mainly rice) toxic salt pan left on soil surface ( overall
productivity + soil quality reduced)
Bangladesh almost entirely self-sufficient Too much irrigation water-logging, grain-spoil

Area capable of producing food has tripled Tapping groundwater…

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all resources »