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Ecosystems and rural environments
- Biosphere: contains all the world's plant and animal life
- Biodiversity: variety of life in the world/a particular habitat/ecosystem
- Biome: plant and animal community covering a large area of the Earth's surface
- Primary productivity: greatest amount of living matter produced by rainfall…

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Temperature decreases as altitude increases mountains colder than lowlands (1ºC lost per
100m of height)

Prevailing winds and ocean currents
- Land heats faster in Summer and cools faster in Winter than the sea areas inland have
warmer Summers and cooler Winters than coastal areas
- Winds blowing from…

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Ecosys tems
Physical components
- Water- rain or in soil
- Air- provides O and CO
- Solar energy- source of energy, light and heat
- Rocks- permeable or impermeable. Provide nutrients
- Soils- vary in depth, acidity, nutrients, fertility
Inputs Stores Outputs
- Gases - Plants - Eroded soil…

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Recycling of nut rient s
KEY Trees/organisms
Nutrients taken
Store die. Leaves fall Leaching some
up by plants
Nutrient nutrients lost
Output Litter Soil
Weathering of
Plants/leaves parent rock and
Surface run-off decompose rainfall some
nutrients removed nutrients released nutrients added
- =Total amount of organic…

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Black/dark brown
- Found in middle latitudes of both crumb structure
hemispheres (e.g. Prairie in North
America, Pampas in Argentina, Steppe in Asia, B horizon often absent
Eastern Europe) in chernozems- only deep
- Account for 1.8% of total continental A horizon visible
land area on Earth
- From Russian…

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Water-bearing rock which readily transmits groundwater to wells and springs. Wells can be
drilled into them so water can be pumped out. Normally replenished/recharged by rainfall

Extracting water without a pump- artesian wells
Sometimes porous rock which has tilted into the earth is surrounded by a less porous…

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Characteris t ics of rural environment s

Factor Characteristic

Landscape Open spaces, scattered settlements, farming, green spaces

Population density Low compared to urban areas (can be as high as in towns but in a
compartmentalised way in some parts of the world, e.g. Bangladesh)

Employment Largely primary sector (involves changing…

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- National Park Authorities advised by: national park officer, specialists in ecology/agriculture/
archeology, conservation

The Lake District (see case study sheet)
- Designated as National Park in 1951 (largest in England)
- Almost 16 million visitors per year who spend over £900 million per year (as of 2009)
- Tourists…

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Farming types
Arable (Crop growing) Pastoral (livestock rearing)
Market gardening (N. Kent)- near main Upland sheep farming (Lake District)- cool
towns, flat land, soils are easy to work, climate (1000mm+ annually), poor soils,
cool climate (500-750mm annually), extensive farming, steep + rugged hills
intensive farming, small-scale machinery, unsuitable for machinery,…

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Success Problems

Irrigated land yields 13 million tonnes of crops Water rapidly removed by high temperatures
(mainly rice) toxic salt pan left on soil surface ( overall
productivity + soil quality reduced)
Bangladesh almost entirely self-sufficient Too much irrigation water-logging, grain-spoil

Area capable of producing food has tripled Tapping groundwater…


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