Farming and agriculture

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  • Created on: 15-05-14 19:07
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Farming and agriculture
The farming system
Inputs (physical)
Precipitation Temperature Relief
Soils and drainage Length of growing season
Inputs (human/economic)
Income Farm buildings Energy/electricity
Rent Transport costs Fertiliser and pesticide
Seeds Machinery Work force
Livestock
Processes
Storage Farming methods Growing crops
Rearing animals
Outputs
Expenditure Products for sale Crops
Animal products Profit
Changes to system
Floods/droughts Disease/pests Change in demand/price
Government control Improved technology Access to market
Farming types
Arable (Crop growing) Pastoral (livestock rearing)
Market gardening (N. Kent)- near main Upland sheep farming (Lake District)- cool
towns, flat land, soils are easy to work, cool climate (1000mm+ annually), poor soils,
climate (500-750mm annually), intensive extensive farming, steep + rugged hills
farming, small-scale machinery, 3 workers, unsuitable for machinery, farmer has
vegetable and fruit produce sold to local occasional help, machinery used to cut and
market dry grass, wool + muttons + lambs + calves
sold to lowland farmers for fattening

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Farming and agriculture
Intensive Extensive
Large labour force and/or large input of Large land area with relatively low capital
capital (relative to land being worked) input and a small work force
Subsistence Commercial
Food growth primarily for personal Food growth primarily for profit to be sold
consumption with little - if any - to sell to mass market
Organic- arable Organic- pastoral
No pesticides/artificial fertilisers/mass crop- No battery farming/harvesting young
spraying/GM crops, priority of maintaining animals/antibiotics/steroid to increase or
ecosystem speed up growth
Why not…read more

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Farming and agriculture
High-yield varieties- India
= seeds from crops that have been specially bred to more than double usual yield of crop
Reasons
- Monsoon season = 80% of rain so short growing season (<50mm between November and April)
- Bengal famine of 1943, second famine in 1965 (1.5 million died)
- Large population of 1.2 billion growing 1.…read more

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Farming and agriculture
- GMOs (GM organisms) are arguably unsafe- theyve been linked to 1000s of toxic and allergenic
reactions, and 1000s of sick, sterile and dead livestock as well as damage to almost all organs and
systems studied in lab animals
Monsanto
- Biggest GM corporation- has patented most GM seeds in use today
- Claims that its GMOs create higher yield higher revenues
- Use of Monsanto GMOs farmers must use Monsanto herbicides
Overproduction
Reasons
-More food produced but unchanging/falling
population due to…read more

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Farming and agriculture
- All EU taxpayers pay same amount though money spread unevenly between countries (70% of
funds go to 20% of EUs farms)
- Led to overproduction in late 1980s and early 1990s (e.g. Of beef and butter)
- For these reasons reforms were introduced
Key words
- Subsidy: money from government to support a company by supplementing their income
- Quota: Goal for production of goods.…read more

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