Case Studies

ANTI-NATALIST POLICY: CHINA’S ONE CHILD POLICY

  • Introduced in 1979 by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping to limit population growth
  • Marriageable age for men = 22, for women = 20
  • Couples had to apply to get married, and again for a child

If they conformed:

  • Free education
  • Priority housing
  • Family benefits

If they didn’t conform

  • No benefits 
  • Fined heavily
  • Women pregnant for a 2nd timehad to get forced abortions
  • Persistent offenders sterilized
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ANTI-NATALIST POLICY: CHINA’S ONE CHILD POLICY

Exceptions:

  • 2nd child allowed if 1st was mentally/physically handicapped or died 
  • Farmers could have 2 children if 1st was a girl In rural areas, 2nd child allowed on payment of fine/bribe 
  • Policy did not apply to the 56 ethnic minority groups

Achievement of policy:

  • Birth rate fell from 31 to 19 in 20 years 
  • The fertility rate has fallen to 1.7 births per woman 
  • Reduced severity of problems that come with overpopulation
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PRO-NATALIST POLICY: ITALY

Low fertility rates of 1.33 children per family

Italy has long had a problem with declining birth rates

Yuppiedom – preference for luxury goods delays marriage and babies

Problems

  • Women do not want to interrupt career to have children 
  • High fees charged by nurseries 
  • Shortage of affordable housing for young people

Solutions

Italian government offers a one time payment of 1000 euros to couples who have a 2nd child

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OVERPOPULATION: LAGOS, NIGERIA

  • From 1986 to 2010, the percentage of population living in urban centers increased from 20% to more than 40% 
  • Persistent problem of inadequate water supply leading to unhealthy living conditions. 
  • Increased levels of pollution; air, water, noise, soil contamination. 
  • High infant and child mortality; no development of the health system. 
  • Elevated crime rate due to drug cartels and increased theft by people stealing resources to survive. 
  • Malnutrition constant issue in rural areas
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UNDERPOPULATION: AUSTRALIA

  • Australia has an area of 7.6 million km2 and population of 22 million 
  • Australia export their surplus food, energy and mineral resources 
  • High incomes, good living conditions, and high levels of technology and immigration. 
  • Australia is the world's thirteenth largest economy 
  • World's fifth-highest per capita income It is probable that standards of living would rise, through increased production and exploitation of resources, if population increased
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INTERNATIONAL MIGRATIONS: MEXICANS INTO THE USA

Push Factors

  • 1800 per doctor 
  • GDP per capita $14,406 
  • Adult literacy rates only 55% 
  • Life expectancy 72 years 
  • 40% Unemployed
  •  Poor standard of living 
  • Shortage of food

Pull Factors

  • 400 per doctor 
  • GDP per capita $46,860
  • Adult literacy rates 99% 
  • Life expectancy 76 years 
  • Many jobs available 
  • Better housing Family links
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INTERNATIONAL MIGRATIONS: MEXICANS INTO THE USA

Effect on USA

  • Millions of $ on border patrol 
  • Drain on US economy 
  • Migrants keep wages low
  • Good for US economy, bad for US workers 
  • Cultural and racial issues
  • Increased incidents of TB 
  • Culture enriched

Effect on Mexico

  • Shortage of economically active 
  • Men emigrate leaving women 
  • Trouble find marriage partner 
  • Immigrants send $6 billion a year back to Mexico
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AGEING POPULATION: JAPAN

  • An ageing population - birth rates have fallen and one of the world's highest life expectancy's. 
  • Highest proportion of old dependents - about 23% 
  • Lowest proportion of young dependents about 13% 
  • Has a total fertility rate of only 1.25 
  • Have to look outside its borders to prevent future population decline and economic decline
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PROBLEMS WITH URBANIZATION: ROCINA

  • Rapid urban growth due to immigration and high birth rate 
  • Poor people live in shanty settlements (favelas) and slums built along main roads leading to the city or vacant space next to factories on the outskirts of the city 
  • Land with little economic value 
  • Steep hillsides or unhealthy valley floors 
  • Shacks made from wood, corrugated iron, cardboard or sacking 
  • Overcrowded, high population density 
  • Problems: pollution, eyesore 
  • Threat: flooding, landslips or industrial pollution
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PROBLEMS WITH URBANIZATION: ROCINA

Type 1: Low-cost improvements

  • Houses rebuilt with cheap and easy-to-use breeze blocks 
  • Water tank on roof collects rainwater for toilet & sink 
  • Electricity and mains sewerage are added 
  • Pay a low rent

Type 2: Self-help schemes

  • Groups of people encouraged to build their own homes 
  • Local authority provides breeze-blocks and roofing tiles 
  • Electricity and water supply added 
  • Advantages: 
  • Creates community spirit
  • Cheap
  • More houses built
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OUT-OF-TOWN-SHOPPING-CENTERS: BLUEWATER

  • Opened in 1999 and located near Dartford, Kent 
  • Built on a Brownfield site in a dis-used chalk quarry and is just outside the M25 
  • 14 hectares of retail space and almost 1.5 hectares for indoor leisure use
  • What's there? 
  • 320 shops 
  • Parking for 13,000 cars
  • Cafes and restaurants 50 acres of lakes and parkland, playgrounds and cycle ways 
  • 12 screen cinema
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URBAN REGENERATION: LONDON DOCKLANDS

  • The Docklands suffered a spiral of decline and became very deprived due to containerization and deindustrialization 
  • During the 1980's, British government launched Urban Development Corporations (UDCs) to regenerate poor and deprived areas 
  • Physical Regeneration: 200,000 trees planted and 17 conservation areas made 
  • Social Regeneration: 2,000 new homes built, shopping centers, sports centers and colleges built and $160 million spent on education and healthcare 
  • Economic Regeneration: businesses doubled, jobs tripled, railways built, city airport opened
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CONGESTION: LONDON

Social Problems

  • Increased congestion so increased pollution – health problems 
  • Increased travel time 
  • More cars - increased frequency of accidents 
  • More traffic jams increase frequency of road rage.

Environmental Problems

  • Increased amount of air and noise pollution 
  • Increased road building - destruction of greenfield sites
  • Air pollution - acid rain and greenhouse effect

Economic Problems

  • Increased government expenditure – building more road 
  • Workers arrive late to work 
  • Reliance on oil
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CONGESTION: LONDON

Solutions

  • Congestion charge: Drivers are now charged to drive into the center of London. 
  • Bike hire scheme: Borrow bikes for a short period at minimal cost &bike lanes created 
  • Trams (like buses that run on train tracks) reintroduced 
  • Pedestrianisation: removing cars from the roads and making them walking only areas
  • Improved rail links which decreases travel times 
  • The amount of buses have been increased and old ones renewed
  • Encouraging carpooling and building dedicated lanes Increased car tax and petrol duty
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EARTHQUAKE IN MEDC: KOBE, JAPAN

7.2 Richter on 17 January 1995, 5.46am

Cause:

  • Destructive plate margin
  • Philippines Plate forced under Eurasian plate

 Effects:

  • 5500 dead 
  • 40 000 injured 
  • 230 000 homeless 
  • 1km of railway collapsed 
  • 180 000 houses destroyed
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EARTHQUAKE IN LEDC: TAKHAR, AFGHANISTAN

6.1 Richter on 4th February 1998, Winter

Cause:

  • Collision plate boundary 
  • Indian and Iranian plate collided with Eurasian plate.

Effects:

  • 4000 died 
  • 10 000 injured 
  • 15 000 homeless 
  • 27 villages largely destroyed
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VOLCANO: MOUNT SINABURG, INDONESIA

Erupted in January 2014

Cause:

  • Destructive margin
  • Indo-Australian plate subducted Eurasian plate

Effects:

  • 80,000 hectares of cropland destroyed
  • 16 deaths
  • 25,000 people had to take refuge
  • $700 million loss of roads, water and telecommunications
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LIVING NEAR VOLCANOES

  • Hundreds of jobs created 
  • Geothermal power
  • Large tourism industry
  • Scenic
  • Fertile soil
  • Farming
  • Less congestion
  • Space
  • Privacy
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FLOODING: CORNWALL, BOSCASTLE RIVER, UK

Flooded August 2004

Causes:

  • Hurricane Alex
  • Convectional rainfall
  • Heavy rainfall
  • Saturated ground

Effects:

  • 3 metre wave hit
  • 10 injured
  • No power for 3 days
  • 6 buildings washed out to sea
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FLOODING: CORNWALL, BOSCASTLE RIVER, UK

Solutions

Short-term

  • Flood warning systems
  • Search and Rescue operations
  • Donations
  • Refuge in leisure centres

Long-term

  • Reconstruction of power and water
  • Flood Defences
  • Channel widened and deepened
  • Bridge made
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FLOOD DEFENSE: THREE GORGES DAM, CHINA

Advantages

  • 100 million people protected
  • Provide 2% of China's energy needs
  • Tourism increased on lake 
  • Improved shipping
  • New settlements have better services

Disadvantages

  • 3 million people relocated
  • Factories submerged releasing toxic waste into water
  • Silt doesn’t fertilize fields downstream
  • Risk of earthquake cracking dam
  • Loss of species, Yangtze dolphin
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COASTAL PROTECTION: NEW FOREST COASTLINE, UK

  • New Forest coastline in Hampshire has clay and sand cliffs 
  • Retreated 60m since 1971
  • Now protected by concrete sea wall and groynes
  • Constructing rock revetments and groynes at Barton on Sea
  • Marshland with wildlife value from Keyhaven to Lymington – so nature reserve created and New Forest named as National Park
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SAND DUNES: MORFA HARLECH

  • Morfa Harlech is a sandy peninsula immediately north of the town of Harlech in the county of Gwynedd North Wales.
  • This large area of sand has formed since the ice age.
  • Sand comes from beach and has been moved northward by longshore drift to form a spit across the estuary
  • The prevailing south-westerly winds picks it up and molds into sand dunes
  • The youngest dunes are found closest to the sea.
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SUBSISTENCE FARMING: LOWER RIVER GANGES

  • River Ganges flows southeastwards from Himalayas
  • Alluvium deposited east of New Delhi and Bay of Bengal to form a flat plain and large delta – farming occurs here
  • Farmers produce just enough for family
  • Continuous growing seasons: rice in monsoon season & vegetable/cereal in dry season
  • Labour intensive
  • Recent changes include application of modern farming techniques, usage of HYV cereals, improvement in irrigation via technology and increased farm size.
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DESERTIFICATION: SAHEL

  • Narrow belt of semi-arid land South of the Sahara in Africa
  • Rainfall is only in 1 or 2 months of the year
  • Rainfall is irregular with no rain in some years

Physical Causes:

  • Low amount of water supply
  • Global warming; less rain per year
  • Water holes dry up
  • Non drought resistant grasses die

Human Causes:

  • Population growth; 4% each yr
  • Overgrazing; increased 40%
  • Overcultivation; same crops grown and no fallow land left
  • Taking local trees for firewood
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TOURISM IN AN MEDC: LAKE DISTRICT

Attractions

  • Mixture of natural and farmed landscapes
  • Diversity of landscapes (lakes, woodland, moorland)
  • Wide range of ecosystems
  • Sites of special scientific interest, nature reserves and protected limestone pavement
  • 3200km of footpath, bridleways and green lanes
  • Local settlements with human history
  • Culture, dialect, sports, literature movements
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TOURISM IN AN MEDC: LAKE DISTRICT

Advantages:

  • Wealth to locals
  • Employment for locals
  • New amenities used by locals too

Disadvantages:

  • Traffic: too many cars
  • Footpath erosion:
  • Places become overcrowded
  • Conflicts; locals and tourists
  • Ruining scenery; cars and litter

Solutions:

  • Landscaping: repairing eroded foot paths & planting trees
  • Integration of rail, bus and lake steamer transport
  • Road hierarchy, decreasing congestion
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ECOTOURISM: BELIZE

Attractions

  • A coral reef with abundant life
  • Over 450 cayes (low-lying islands); favored by scuba divers
  • Relics from the Mayan civilization
  • A sub-tropical climate & abundant wildlife.
  • Political stability and close to the USA
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ECOTOURISM: BELIZE

Successes:

  • Tourism is Belize’s second most important earner of foreign exchange.
  • Has attracted the elite market
  • 1⁄4 of country designated as nature reserve, preserving wildlife

Problems:

  • 90% of recent developments are foreign owned
  • Coral at the Hol Chan Marine
  • Reserves has been damaged.
  • Mangrove swamps are being drained
  • Some tourists are failing to take care in nature reserves.
  • Deforestation by refugees
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TROPICAL STORMS IN MEDC: HURRICAN FLOYD (1999)

Cause:

  • Formed in Atlantic Ocean off coast of Africa
  • Began 2 September 1999
  • Category 4 hurricane in Bahamas by 13 and 14 September

Effects:

  • 79 deaths
  • 4 million evacuated
  • Insurance = $460 million
  • $1 billion agricultural losses
  • Beaches in Bahamas destroyed
  • 1 million had no electricity or water
  • 14 states affected – North Carolina worst hit
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TROPICAL STORMS IN MEDC: HURRICAN FLOYD (1999)

Solutions and Management

  • Prediction: National Hurricane Centre tracked storm using satellites, allowed 4 million people to be evacuated.
  • Preparation: evacuation was well planned, supported by army and many hundreds of hurricane shelters
  • Prevention: US citizens educated on how to survive a hurricane by government
  • Buildings are well constructed to withstand high winds, floods and storm surges.
  • Aid: USA relies on internal aid for it’s own government, the US government gave £1.5 billion and whilst FEMA gave £0.8Billion
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DROUGHT: CHAD (2015)

Cause:

  • Less than average rain

Effects:

  • Garden hosepipes banned
  • Water rationing
  • Clay soiled dried, cracked and buildings collapsed
  • Grass stopped growing so cattle did not have enough food
  • Crops died
  • Forest fires as land dry
  • Legislation introduced to reduce home and industrial use of water
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HI-TECH INDUSTRY: M4 CORRIDOR

M4 corridor runs from Wales to London and is home to a lot of high tech firms like microelectronics, Rolls Royce and British Aerospace because it has:

  • M4 motorway to allow inputs and outputs to be transported
  • Mainline railway Wales to London
  • Heathrow airport (and 4 others) for international links
  • Large labour force from London and nearby towns (e.g. Reading)
  • Nearby firms to exchange ideas
  • Near Bristol, Bath, Reading and London Universities for expertise and research
  • Attractive environment for workers e.g. National parks like Dartmoor
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INDUSTRY IN AN NIC: MALAYSIA

  • Malaysia first developed heavy industry like steel and ship building
  • Now concentrating on high tech industry like microelectronics and biotechnology
  • Aims to be an MEDC by 2020
  • Many industries not run by government anymore but privatised
  • Uses a large workforce so attract workers from Indonesia and Philippines
  • Attracting foreign companies too
  • Now building a new international airport, new towns, science parks and high tech buildings like Petronas building
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INFORMAL SECTOR IN LEDCS: RIO, BRAZIL

Vendors on Copacabana beach sell sunhats, lotions, cold drinks, jewelery and roses

Benefits

  • Self employed
  • Little capital (money) involved
  • Labor intensive
  • Use cheap resources
  • Employs many people - 15,000
  • Gives skills
  • Uses local materials

Drawbacks

  • Small scale
  • No government assistance
  • Illegal
  • Women and children as workers
  • Low standards of goods
  • Work irregular wages for uncertain wages
  • Not paying taxes
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HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER: ITAIPU DAM

  • Located along River Paraná: large reliable flow of water
  • Hard impermeable rock was ideal for constructing both the dam and reservoir
  • However 40,000 people had to be relocated because of construction
  • Before construction, already reasonable amount of infrastructure due to nearby towns
  • Depth of valley and the relief of wider area flooded for reservoir means Itaipu has lowest flooded area per unit of power production of all HEP schemes in Brazil
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NUCLEAR POWER: DAYA BAY, CHINA

  • Located at Daya Bay in Guangdong, south-east China
  • Coastal location: seawater to used in the cooling process
  • Hard rock in area: solid foundation for large and heavy installations
  • Not on plate fault: no major threat from earthquakes or faulting in area
  • Major cities not too far (Hong Kong 50km) so little energy is lost in transmission, but reasonable distance away in case of a nuclear accident
  • Nearby supply of labour
  • General infrastructure is very good
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THERMAL POWER: KINGSNORTH, UK

  • Major 2000MW thermal power station in south-east England
  • Located on the banks of the Medway estuary: lots of water for cooling
  • Port facility: allows importation of coal and oil
  • Adjacent to farmland and no significant residential areas nearby: lots of space
  • Not too far away from house: not much energy is lost in transmission
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CHANGING POWER SOURCES: THE UK

  • UK government wants to reduce CO2 emissions & increase renewable sources.
  • By 2020 the UK aims to produce about 15% of its energy from renewables
  • 2011, UK had 296 wind farms and over 3,400 turbines

Renewable power:

  • Wind: source for greatest amount of renewable energy in the UK.
  • 2010, world’s largest offshore wind farm opened in Thanet, on Thames estuary
  • Many wind farms have been set up, particularly in Scotland and Wales.
  • Biomass: Production of energy from biomass is expanding.
  • 2011, new biomass energy centre was opened in Chilton, Durham.
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SOIL EROSION: NEPAL

  • Deforestation occurring for the growing need for fuelwood
  • 25% of the forest was removed between 1990 and 2005
  • Removing trees on steep slopes leads to soil erosion
  • Monsoon rains between May and September increase erosion
  • Villagers in Tadiya have easy access to the forest to collect fuel and fodder however they are having to travel further and further
  • Women spend 1/3 of their day collecting firewood for fuel
  • Using fuelwood for tourists (70,000 per year) has increased deforestation and soil erosion by 10%
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RAINFOREST CLEARANCE: AMAZON

Causes

  • Slash and burn farming by Amerindian tribes like the Yanomami
  • Subsistence farming by 25 million landless peasants
  • Commercial cattle ranching
  • Highway and railway
  • Timber/ logging companies
  • Mineral mining eg diamonds, gold

Effects

  • 30000 known species could be threatened
  • Could lose the cure for diseases
  • Loss of Amerindians + tradition due to European diseases
  • Soil erosion and a loss of nutrients in soil
  • Climate change and global warming
  • Affects global carbon/oxygen levels
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RAINFOREST CLEARANCE: AMAZON

  • Zones for different activities
  • Loggers use selective logging practices
  • Laws + fines and prosecution for law-breaking
  • Limit licenses to be given out
  • Restricting use of heavy destructive machinery
  • Avoid construction where local tribes exist
  • Community forestry development scheme to educate local people
  • Increased patrols
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