• Created by: Iona112
  • Created on: 29-11-21 14:11
a community of plants and animals that interact with each other and their physical environment
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Components that are non-living environmental factors
eg., climate, soil and temperature
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components are the living features of an ecosystem such as plants and fish
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A global/ large scale ecosystem
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A freshwater pond habitat
provide a variety of habitats for plants and animals. there are big variations in the amount of light, water and oxygen available
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convert energy from the environment (mainly sunlight) into glucose.
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get energy from the sugars produced by the producers. It eats the producer
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Food web
shows all the connections between producers and consumers in a more complex way than a chain
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break down plant and animal material and return the nutrients to the soil
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Food chain
shows the direct links between producers and consumers in the simple for of a line
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Nutrient cycle
Nutrients are foods that are used by plants and animals to grow, two main sources of nutrients:
- rainwater washes chemicals from atmosphere
- weathered rock releases nutrients into the soil
when plants or animals die the decomposers help to recycle the n
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what are the impacts of change on an ecosystem
Ecosystems can take hundreds or thousands of years to develop. If an ecosystem is to be sustainable it needs to be in balance. If there is a change to one of the components it can effect the rest of the ecosystem
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the different scales of change to an ecosystem
- global-scale changes (eg. climate change)
- local- scale changes (changes to a habitat eg. a hedge being removed)
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Natural changes
- ecosystems can adapt to slow natural changes with few harmful effects
- rapid changes however, have severe impacts such as a drought
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How can agricultural fertilisers have an effect on an ecosystem
Can lead to eutrophication:
- nutrients are carried by rain into rivers, lakes or seas.
- The Nitrates in the fertilisers stimulate a disproportionate growth of algae
-Depletes oxygen supply in the water and fish may die
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Changes to an ecosystem due to human activities
- agricultural fertilisers can cause eutrophication
- ponds may be drained to use for farming, kills a lot of pond life
- woods cut down destroys habitats & affects the nutrient cycle
- hedgerows removed destroys habitats & alters the plant/animal balance
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example of how one change can affect a pond ecosystem
- if perch were added to a pond
- Perch will eat more of the smaller fish
- reduce the amount of food for creatures further up the food chain like herons
- with fewer frogs there will be an increase of creatures below frogs in the food chain like slugs
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What is Avington Park lake
Avington park is a country estate close to Winchester in Hampshire the lake in the grounds is of historical and ecological importance
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Problems with Avington Park Lake
- Lack of maintenance in recent years has led to an accumulation of silt and growth of vegetation
- this has created an excellent habitat for birds but the impressive view was lost
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Aims of Avington park lake restoration
- The restoration of the lake was carried out in 2014
- The aim was to restore the lake as part of the landscape and to preserve and improve its function as a habitat for birds
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How was Avington Park lake restored
- involved desalting and redefining the lake and creating new waterside habitats to attract nestling birds and waterfowl
- the lake is now a healthy ecosystem for a diverse range of wildlife
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The distribution of global ecosystems
- defined mainly by the dominant type of vegetation in that region
- the climate and characteristics of ecosystems are determined by global atmospheric circulation
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Tropical rainforest
Location: close to the equator
- high temp & heavy rainfall associated with equatorial low pressure belt creates ideal conditions for plants to grow
- rainforests cover 6% of the earths surface
- more than 1/2 of the worlds species of plants and animals l
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Location: roughly 30° North and South of the Equator
- Hot deserts are associated with sub-tropical high pressure belts
- sinking air stops clouds from forming resulting in high daytime temps & low night temps & low rainfall
- covers 1/5 of the world's la
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Location: Artic/ Antarctic
- cold air sinks at the North and South Poles resulting in low temps and dry conditions
- main polar regions are Antartica and Greenland
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Deciduous and coniferous forests
Location: roughly 30-40° North of the Equator
- Deciduous trees shed their leaves in Winter to retain moisture
- Coniferous trees are cone-bearing evergreens, retaining leaves to maximise photosyntheses in summer months
- coniferous forests are better for
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Temperate grassland
Location: 30-40° North and South of the Equator
- Bast areas of grassland
- these areas experience warm, dry summers and cold winters
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Location: 40-45° Mainly north of the Equator
- Countries around the Mediterranean enjoy hot, sunny & dry summers and mild winters
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Tropical grassland
Location: 15-30° North and South of the Equator
- the tropical climate in these latitudes is characterised by distinct wet and dry seasons
- dry seasons can be very hot and wild fires can happen
- Violent thunderstorms can occur during the wet season
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Location: From the Artic Circle to about 60-70° North
- Characterised by low-growing plants adapted to retain heat and moisture in the cold, windy and dry conditions
- it is a fragile ecosystem, easily damaged by humans and threatened by developments
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Components that are non-living environmental factors
eg., climate, soil and temperature

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Card 5


A freshwater pond habitat


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