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Ecologism Examples Handbook
Fritjof Capra
Challenged assumption that human beings are masters of the natural world.
World had been previously seen as organic- but 17th century philosophers
eg-Descartes and Newton changed thinking meaning that it was portrayed as a
machine who's parts could be analysed using science and experiments.…

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New physics emerged out of advances in subatomic research and has abandoned the
idea of absolute or objective knowledge.
o Physical world understood as a system/network of systems
o Focuses on organisation within systems
o Objective knowledge = impossible as the very act of observing alters what…

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o Production also facilitates personal growth by developing skills and talents,
overcomes ego-centrism by forging social bonds and encouraging people to
work together.

Garrett Hardin-1968
TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS: the environmental vulnerability that arises from
people having open access to collective resources.
Common land/fishery stocks encourage individuals to act in…

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`Man is now too clever to survive without wisdom' needs wisdom to consider
whether rational ambitions are sensible.

Warwick Fox
TRANSPERSONAL ECOLOGY- human beings and other entities are part of a single
unfolding reality.

Eric Fromm- 1979
Having= attitude of mind that seeks fulfilment in acquisition and…

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Arne Naess-1980s
Invented the concept of deep ecology
Ecology should be concerned with every part of nature on an equal basis.
Yet, accepted that `since we are humans, we have to put humans first.'
`I may kill a mosquito if it is on the face of my baby…

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4. The flourishing of human life and cultures is compatible with a substantially smaller
human population. The flourishing of non-human life requires a smaller human
5. Present human interference with the non-human world is excessive, and the situation
is rapidly worsening.
6. Policies must therefore be changed. These policies…

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Mutual aid= principal means of human and animal development, empirical basis for
both anarchism and communism.
William Morris 1834-96
Romantic thinker- earth threatended by the onward rush of industrialisation
Alienation of workers + degradation of the environment could be eliminated if
simpler more traditional methods of production…

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Old Sir


These notes provide a comprehensive guide to the various philosophies that underpin elements of modern ecologism. In order to successfully address assessment objective 2 students might wish to look in more detail at recent attempts at international co-operation and the degrees to which ecological issues have been successfully and unsuccessfully brought to the fore in 'mainstream' politics. Students should also be ready to link the politics of ecology through 'single issue parties' to any discussion of electoral systems, representation and participation.

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