Divided union timeline

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  • Created on: 15-05-14 18:40
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President Year Event
1800s Jim Crow laws passed, enforcing segregation
1896 Plessy v. Ferguson case ends in Supreme Court ruled segregation
constitutional as long as conditions separate but equal
1909 National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP)
founded- aimed for equality of rights and elimination of racial hatred
Woodrow 1917 Bolshevik Revolution started Red Scare (Americans scared loans wouldnt be
repaid + economy wouldnt flourish under Communism)
1920 By this time, A. Palmer (Presidents Attorney General) had arrested 1000s of
suspected Communists and sent many immigrants back to Russia
In this decade, developments occurred in womens rights: some went out
without chaperones, smoked and kissed in public, over 20s allowed to vote
Franklin 1933 USA finally recognised USSRs new government
1937 HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committee) formed
1939 USSR invaded Poland, went to war against Finland and formed Nazi-Soviet
non-aggression pact, displeasing USA
1941 Germany invaded Russia and declared war on US, making US and Russia
allies, though USSR still distrusted US as it was hesitant to open second attack
front in Europe
March on Washington movement led by Philip Randolph who aimed to end
discrimination at work. Stopped by Executive Order 8802 from Roosevelt- this
was meant to stop discrimination in industrial and government jobs- and the
formation of the Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) to enforce this
number of black government workers quadrupled
1942 Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) founded- inspired by Gandhi and aimed to
end segregation (especially on transport)
1943 Racial riots in Harlem and Detroit because of tension caused by discrimination
(black wage ½ of white wage) Detroit went under martial law after more than
700 injured, 34 killed and substantial property damage. 9 black people killed in
Harlems riots
1944 WW2 saw developments like higher wages and better employment, but there
was still discrimination (even in the army- given menial jobs and promotions
difficult to get).By this time, black soldiers allowed to serve in marines, but
majority of men killed as blacks given dangerous tasks

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President Year Event
Harry 1945 February- Yalta conference- USA + USSR (led by Roosevelt and Stalin)
couldnt agree on Germanys fate, though some agreements.…read more

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President Year Event
1948 Marshall Plan to help rebuild European economies as Truman convinced that
Communism thrived in places of poverty + hardship - gave more than $14
billion. Worsened Cold War rivalry as Stalin didnt let Eastern European
countries accept aid
Alger Hiss (worker in a peace organisation) accused of being a spy by
Whittaker Chambers. Little evidence + had been at Yalta with Roosevelt (proof
of baseless claims).…read more

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President Year Event
Dwight 1954 Eisenhower passed Communist Control Act (limited partys rights and made it
harder to join) to stem Communist threat. He also set up a Federal Loyalty
(1954-61) Program (similar to Trumans FELP)
McCarthy criticised army and investigations were televised public saw he
was unpatriotic and relied on bluff.…read more

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President Year Event
1957 Eisenhowers Civil Rights Act emphasised equal voting rights and allowed
prosecution of anyone who prevented a US citizen from voting. First CRA in
almost a century.
Carloads of KKK members violently intimidate black residents of Montgomery.
Some integrated buses shot at, 4 churches bombed, Kings home attacked
King set up Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC).…read more

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President Year Event
1960 4 black students held sit-in at Greensboros Woolworths branch. Werent
served so remained until shop closed. More students joined them (27 on 2nd
day, 300 on 5th day) and endured violence without retaliating. Some
concessions made, but after protests resumed, some arrested for trespass
all Greensboro shops boycotted. MLK visited at height of sit-in and promised
help of SCLC.…read more

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President Year Event
1962 Protests in Albany to end segregation. Hundreds of freedom riders and MLK
arrested. An overall failure as segregation wasnt ended
Voter Education Project (VEP) set up, staffed by SNCC members, to show
eligible voters how to vote and pass unfair literacy tests (with questions such as
how many bubbles in a bar of soap? and asking to write out parts of the
constitution).…read more

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President Year Event
Lyndon B 1963 Equal Pay Act
Eleanor Roosevelts commission (investigating womens status at work)
reported inequality (e.g. Only 7% of doctors female)
April- SCLC begin Project C (Confrontation) to try and gain publicity through
marches/demonstrations and desegregate Birmingham (esp. lunch counters)
as all public places there shut down to prevent integration.…read more

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President Year Event
1964 Malcolm X left Nation of Islam after visit to Mecca changed his views, and set
up Muslim Mosque Inc. and Organization of Afro-American Unity, aiming to
promote closer ties between Africans and African-Americans and end
discrimination. Believed Islam could lead to end of racial problems
SDS sit-in against ban on political activities at University of California
Strikes and demonstrations in universities all over US.…read more

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President Year Event
1966 Black Panther Party for Self Defence founded by Huey Newton and Bobby
Seale, aiming for freedom, equality, full employment, education, etc.…read more


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