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Page 1

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Year Event

1812 Napoleon invaded USSR

1823 Monroe Doctrine- European countries not allowed by US to take control of any country in
America- challenged by USSR missiles in Cuba

1898 Spanish-US war over Cuba USA won, Cuba independent (its institution was written
by US + included Platt Amendment USA free…

Page 2

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1944 Churchill and Stalins naughty document (a.k.a. Percentages deal) about who would
have what percentage of influence over European countries after war (e.g. Poland- 90%
USSR, 10% GB; Greece- 90% GB, 10% USSR)

D-Day landing in Normandy German retreat

August- Warsaw uprising by rebels (to try and get…

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1945 July- UN set up to deal with larger problems than LoN- first meeting in San Francisco as
US wanted to play part in international relations after WW2 as it regretted making the
mistake of retreating after WW1 (reason why LoN failed, possibly why WW2 happened)

July- Coalition…

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1947 June- European Recovery Plan (a.k.a. Marshall Plan)- to give financial aid in Europe and
backup Truman Doctrine because Communism believed to thrive in impoverished
countries. Rationing + shortages + struggles to pay for damage everywhere plan would
help recoveries. Aid given as: cash, food, machinery, technological assistance,…

Page 5

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1949 May- Federal Republic of West Germany created by Western allies

October- Democratic Republic of East Germany created by USSR- run by 1 party

1950 Korean war- Communist North (backed by USSR) invaded democratic South (backed by
US)- seemed to confirm domino theory

McCarthy added to anti-Communist hysteria…

Page 6

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1956 Fidel Castro tried to lead rebellion against Batista captured put on trial imprisoned

1957 Castro released fled abroad

Antonin Novotny Communist leader of Czechoslovakia after Jan Masaryk murdered-
unpopular as slow to de-Stalinise + release political prisoners jailed under Stalin

Sputnik (first satellite) launched by USSR- worried…

Page 7

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1962 Krushchev determined to challenge USA as he needed success to deflect criticisms about
his failures in USSR + thought he could outsmart Kennedy again after Berlin wall

Krushchev sent ballistic (=nuclear) missiles to Cuba (to silence criticisms + secure power
in Moscow; to maintain prestige after defeating…

Page 8

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1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty- countries with nuclear weapons (including USA + USSR)
agreed not to develop/spread nuclear weapons

January- Tet Offensive (Vietcong + N Vietnamese army took control of many towns + cities
in S Vietnam and took a while to drive back) US realised war couldnt be…

Page 9

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1969 January- Czech student set fire to himself in protest against USSR

April- Czech anti-USSR demonstrations stopped

Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT) began between superpowers to consider limiting
arsenals as arms race had almost caused nuclear war + was too expensive (USSR
needed to spend more on housing;…

Page 10

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1979 July- SALT2 signed by President Carter + Brezhnev- important at time but rendered
insignificant quickly + upper house of Congress (Senate) didnt vote it in due to
Afghanistan war never became law in US resumption of arms race

Revolution in Iran- pro-West leader overthrown by radical anti-West…

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