Cold War timeline

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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 15-05-14 18:37
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Year Event
1812 Napoleon invaded USSR
1823 Monroe Doctrine- European countries not allowed by US to take control of any country in
America- challenged by USSR missiles in Cuba
1898 Spanish-US war over Cuba USA won, Cuba independent (its institution was written
by US + included Platt Amendment USA free to invade if its interests threatened), US
military base set up at Guantanemo Bay
1914 Germany invaded USSR
1917 Lenins Bolshevik revolution capitalist countries feared Communism spreading
1918 Until 1921, capitalist countries gave arms/supplies to Russian groups trying to overthrow
Lenin/Communists after civil war, Bolsheviks still distrusted West
1928 Lenin died replaced by Stalin
1930s Stalin scared of Hitler invading, but Britain + France continued appeasement Hitler had
more power
1933 Hitler wanted to expand to East + destroy USSR (he hated Communism) Stalin
convinced France, Britain and USA would ally with him + encourage invasion
1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact (=agreement for invasion + partition of Poland) correctly believed
Stalin wanted to seize part of Poland Britain, France, USA disliked him more (Truman
saw it as attempt to spread Communism)
USSR invaded Poland ( government exiled), Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, parts of Finland
1941 July- Nazi-Soviet Pact broken when Germany invaded USSR USSR frustrated that 2nd
fronts opening delayed (result of lack of preparation, but Stalin thought Britain + USA
waiting until German invaders had seriously damaged USSR)
December- Pearl Harbour bombed by Japan
Baltic states annexed to USSR
1943 Mass grave of 20,000 Polish officers found in Katyn forest- no one believed at time that
USSR army killed them with German guns and bullets, but DNA proves they did
April- Churchill more suspicious of USSR when grave of 10,000 Poles found (killed by
Soviet troops)
November- Teheran conference between "Big 3"- Stalin convinced by Roosevelt to stay in
Russian Embassy (seen as safest but Roosevelt had bugged it) showing their good
relationship- Britain + USA agreed to open 2nd front by invading France in May 1944. UN
to be set up after war. Part of East Poland added to USSR and some of Poland taken from
Germany. Border of Poland post-war to be moved

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Year Event
1944 Churchill and Stalins naughty document (a.k.a. Percentages deal) about who would
have what percentage of influence over European countries after war (e.g.…read more

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Year Event
1945 July- UN set up to deal with larger problems than LoN- first meeting in San Francisco as
US wanted to play part in international relations after WW2 as it regretted making the
mistake of retreating after WW1 (reason why LoN failed, possibly why WW2 happened)
July- Coalition government set up in Poland between Communists and the government
from London
August- A-bomb used in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (as Germany had surrendered but not
Japan- still held kamikaze attacks) as conventional invasion too many…read more

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Year Event
1947 June- European Recovery Plan (a.k.a. Marshall Plan)- to give financial aid in Europe and
backup Truman Doctrine because Communism believed to thrive in impoverished
countries. Rationing + shortages + struggles to pay for damage everywhere plan would
help recoveries. Aid given as: cash, food, machinery, technological assistance, in
exchange for agreement to buy US goods and let US companies to invest in their industry.…read more

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Year Event
1949 May- Federal Republic of West Germany created by Western allies
October- Democratic Republic of East Germany created by USSR- run by 1 party
1950 Korean war- Communist North (backed by USSR) invaded democratic South (backed by
US)- seemed to confirm domino theory
McCarthy added to anti-Communist hysteria by accusing US officials of being
1953 By this year, $17 billion from Marshall Plan spent to help rebuild factories + transport
systems in 16 European countries
Hungary- Imre Nagy (Communist but reformer) Prime…read more

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Year Event
1956 Fidel Castro tried to lead rebellion against Batista captured put on trial imprisoned
1957 Castro released fled abroad
Antonin Novotny Communist leader of Czechoslovakia after Jan Masaryk murdered-
unpopular as slow to de-Stalinise + release political prisoners jailed under Stalin
Sputnik (first satellite) launched by USSR- worried US as could circle Earth in 1.…read more

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Year Event
1962 Krushchev determined to challenge USA as he needed success to deflect criticisms about
his failures in USSR + thought he could outsmart Kennedy again after Berlin wall
Krushchev sent ballistic (=nuclear) missiles to Cuba (to silence criticisms + secure power
in Moscow; to maintain prestige after defeating USA at Bay of Pigs + Berlin; to balance out
positions in arms race as USA had missiles in Turkey + missiles in Cuba could hit almost
any US city)
14th October- U2 spy plane…read more

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Year Event
1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty- countries with nuclear weapons (including USA + USSR)
agreed not to develop/spread nuclear weapons
January- Tet Offensive (Vietcong + N Vietnamese army took control of many towns + cities
in S Vietnam and took a while to drive back) US realised war couldnt be won
January- Alexander Dubcek Czech Communist (but also reformer) leader (favoured
Capitalism, free market with private enterprises and competition) reforms announced in
- > political freedom/freedom of speech, no censorship (soon, newspapers discussing
social…read more

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Year Event
1969 January- Czech student set fire to himself in protest against USSR
April- Czech anti-USSR demonstrations stopped
Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT) began between superpowers to consider limiting
arsenals as arms race had almost caused nuclear war + was too expensive (USSR
needed to spend more on housing; OPEC, an oil cartel, set price of oil very high global
inflation as much spent on oil; US economy starting to stall, not grow wanted to save
money; USA heavily indebted after Vietnam + didnt…read more

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Year Event
1979 July- SALT2 signed by President Carter + Brezhnev- important at time but rendered
insignificant quickly + upper house of Congress (Senate) didnt vote it in due to
Afghanistan war never became law in US resumption of arms race
Revolution in Iran- pro-West leader overthrown by radical anti-West government.…read more


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