Development - the basics

Two revision mindmaps covering the basics of the development so covers, indicators, classification, Rostow Model of Development and LDCs, with a few case studies.

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PQLI ­ Physical Quality of Life HPI ­ Happy Planet Index - First, Second, Third World no longer
- Developed 1970 to replace GDP - Introduced by NEF in 2006 applicable in Post Cold War World
- Criticised due to overlap between - Indicates relative ecological efficiency with well-being - Too simplistic so have moved away from
variables - First to combine environmental efficiency with human well- classification based on economics and
Variables used: being CASE STUDIES politics
- Literacy rates - Subjective - Kerala and Qatar as both oppose general trend
- Infant mortality that high GDP means development from both DEVELOPMENT
- Life expectancy at age 1 DEVELOPMENT perspectives CLASSIFICATION
st th st
INDICATORS - HDI = Norway 1 0.943, UK 28 0.863, China 101
- HPI = Costa Rica 1st, China 20th, UK 74th
HDI ­ Human Development Index
- Incepted 1990s to incorporate social Brandt Line = 80/20 = North/South
and economic data Development - 1980 Brandt report into
- Average score of 3 variables, expressed = the process of social and economic advancements that sustainable development
between 1 and 0 lead to an improvement in peoples quality of life and unveiled hemispheric
- No ecological measures or global general well-being development differences
perspectives - North = 80% of GDP but only
Variables used: Core/Periphery ­ composite indicators take an average but 20% of global population
- Life expectancy at birth important to remember development spatially varies within - Very outdated and too
- Educational Attainment countries. simplistic
ROSTOW MODEL OF Development Continuum
- Adjusted income per capita (GDP per
DEVELOPMENT - Contemporary way of viewing
capita by PPP)
LDCs development as sliding scale
STAGE 1 ­ subsistence agriculture - Reflects development occurs
1. Income below $7050 per capita per STAGE 2 ­ TNCs and FDI in number of ways
year STAGE 3 ­ cumulative causation and - Illustrates changing
2. Weak human resources industrialisation importance over time
3. Economic vulnerability STAGE 4 ­ population growth and - No discrete groups
urbanisation, self ­sustaining growth
- Produced 1960
How can LDCs develop? STAGE 5 ­ exploitative industries move
- Based on 15 European and North
- Fair Trade elsewhere, rapid expansion of tertiary sector
American countries
- Industrialisation - 33/50 LDCs are sub- Criticisms and Benefits: - Based on economic development
- Brain gain/drain Saharan - Too simplistic an Eurocentric
- Early warning systems LDCs = Sierra Leone, Haiti, - Does not consider debt or aid + Used with DTM can form population policies
- International investment Myanmar - Underestimates importance of + Rough guide to development
- Appropriate technology colonialism in early development + Easy to compare and understand…read more

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What makes an LDC? Inequality Low export/imports
1. Income below $750 per capita per year
Rapid population growth
2. Weak human resources Few human rights DEMOGRAPHIC ECONOMIC
- Health Early stages of DTM Lack of diversity
- Education Poor sanitation SOCIAL
Primary employment sector
- Nutrition and calorie intake Poor education an health care Issues facing LDCs
3. Economic vulnerability Civil conflict Political instability Low GDP
- Instability of exports Poor living standards Subsistence
- Instability of agricultural production Civil unrest agriculture
- lack of economic diversity Rule by dictatorship
Natural hazards
Inequality Unsustainable exploitation
How can LDCs develop?
3. Fair Trade Deforestation/degradation/desertification
4. Industrialisation Least Developed Countries
5. Brain gain/drain ENVIRONMENTAL
(LDCs) Wood for fuel
6. Early warning systems Low energy consumption
7. International investment (TNCs and No laws or legislation
- 33 out of 50 LDCs are located in sub-Saharan
appending FDI) Poor food/water supply
8. Appropriate technology
- Highest HDI rank is Gabon at 119th and South Sierra Leone
9. Agricultural mechanization
Africa at 121st Population: 6 million
10. Sustainable raw material exploitation
- 16 LDCs are landlocked Life Expectancy: 48 (men), 49 (women)
11. Controlling population growth, i.e.
- 12 LDCs are small islands GNI: US$340 per capita
contraception and population policies
- Almost 50% of the population in LDCs live on GDP (PPP): $780 per capita
less than $1 a day Independence British colonial rule: 1961
- 70% of FDI in LDCs in 2004 went to oil-producing HDI: 180th at 0.336
Population: 10.1 million
Life Expectancy: 61 (men), 64 (women)
- No country in sub-Saharan Africa will meet the Myanmar (Burma)
GNI: US$995 per capita
MDG to reduce CDR by 2015 Population: 50.5 million
GDP (PPP): $1995 per capita
- Liberia has highest level of maternal deaths Life Expectancy: 64 (men), 68 (women)
Independence French colonial rule: 1825
- Average annual population growth in LDCs is 5% GDP (PPP): $1307 per capita
HDI: 145th at 0.404
= highest in world HDI: 149th
- Over 40% of LDC population is under 15 years
- 140 million people in LDCs live in poor housing
- Only 58% have access to clean water…read more


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