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Classification and diagnosis of schizophrenia- A01
A01- Schizophrenia is a mental health disorder which is characterised by a disruption in a
person's thoughts, emotions, speech and they lose contact with reality.
A01- Classification is the act of distributing illnesses into categories of the same type
A01- Diagnosis is the recognition and identification of a condition by its signs and
symptoms. Signs are the results of objective tests (e.g. blood tests) and symptoms are
reports from the patient about how they feel.…read more

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A01- Boyle (1990) and Bentall (1988) have suggested that the concept of schizophrenia is
neither reliable nor valid and so the diagnosis is not clinically or scientifically useful. So this
suggests schizophrenia shouldn't exist and therefore no diagnosis should exist.
A01- A valid classification system should be able to predict outcome and response to
treatment. However, it has proved very difficult to predict either of those with accuracy and
there are wide individual variations.…read more

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Classification and diagnosis of schizophrenia- A02/A03
A02- The classification systems were developed 50 years ago but it is revised several times
to reflect both changing views in psychiatric practice and new research evidence this suggest
that the manuals are not era dependent so we can use them at all times.
A02- Beck et al. (1962) reported a 54% concordance rate between experienced
practitioners' diagnoses when assessing 153 patients. A03- Small sample so difficult to
generalize.…read more

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A02- Whaley (2001) found inter-rater reliability correlations in the diagnosis of schizophrenia
as low as 0.11. This shows that the reliability of the diagnosis of schizophrenia is really low so
the manuals need to change or more need to be made.
A02- certain ethnic groups are more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia than other
Keith et al. (1991) found that 2.1 % of African Americans are diagnosed with schizophrenia
compared with 1.…read more

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A01- Schizophrenia is a mental health disorder which is characterised by a disruption in a person's
thoughts, emotions, speech and they lose contact with reality.
A01- the Genetic explanation of Schizophrenia proposes that the disorder is hereditary ­ it runs in
families.
A01- family studies show that the risk of developing schizophrenia is greater for those more closely
related to the schizophrenic.…read more

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A01- Risk to the general population of developing schizophrenia is only 1%
A01- According to the dopamine hypothesis excess levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine is the
cause of the disorder.
A01- Neurotransmitters are the chemical messengers that transmit impulses across synapses
between neurons.
A01- Post mortems and PET scans show that schizophrenics have abnormally high levels of dopamine
this supports the dopamine hypothesis.
A01- Seeman (1987) found increases in dopamine receptor density of between 60 ­ 110 %
compared to controls.…read more

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SCHIZOPHRENIA BILOGICAL EXPLANATIONS ­ A02/A03
A02- If there was no genetic link then there should be no difference in the level of risk between first
degree relatives and the public.…read more

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A02- the fact that concordance rates increased with genetic relatedness may be explained by the
fact that families are likely to spend more time together which means environmental factors may be
influenced .
A02- The high concordance rate in MZ twins may be due to the fact that MZ twins tend to be treated
more similarly than DZ twins and so NURTURE may explain the concordance rate rather than nature.…read more

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A02- Davis et al (1991) argues that the dopamine hypothesis is too simplistic because high levels of
dopamine were not found in all schizophrenics this shows that other factors cause schizophrenia.
A02- One of the most commonly used theories because it can be proved empirically so it's more
convincing.
A02- Healy (2000) believes pharmaceutical companies were keen to see the dopamine theory
promoted because they would make huge profits from manufacturing anti-schizophrenic drugs that
inhibited dopamine production.…read more

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