Complete Psychodynamic Approach Revision

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  • Created on: 19-11-11 16:37
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Overview Summary Psychodynami
c Approach
What is the Psychodynamic Approach?
It is about the mind and energy ­ releasing energy by exposing the unconscious
desires making them conscious.
Key Assumptions
1. Importance of the unconscious mind in behaviour (conscious, pre, un)
2. Importance of early years in personality development (id, ego,
superego)
Case Studies
Sample size: individuals or small group
Research methods: lab exp, questionnaires, survey, interviews, observation
Central research method: case history
Triangulation! (Taking different research methods and pooling it to generate
themes/trends)
Ethics include: confidentiality + privacy
Freud's Case Studies
Research methods: free association, dream analysis, slips of the tongue
Ethics include: interpretation of the analyst, gender bias, and sexual matters
Correlations
A measurement of relationships between two variables and the extent in
which they are related...
-1 negative, +1 positive, 0 no correlation
Longitudinal Studies
1 set of pps with measurements taken overtime, for example, watching an
infant's language development over the first year.
Page 1 of 8 g:\psychology\psychodynamic\overview.docx Amy Rew

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Overview Summary Psychodynami
c Approach
Strengths: looks at development trends + individuals and it uses same pps,
therefore no bias
Weaknesses: people may drop out or may be hard to keep track, researchers
may change over time and money cost
Cross-sectional studies
Two groups of pps at one moment in time, for example, looking at a 2yr old
language development and comparing it to a 5yr old in the same area.…read more

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Overview Summary Psychodynami
c Approach
Freud's Theory of Personality
1st we develop our ID ­ primal instinct (the devil)
2nd is our Ego ­ it monitors the ID and allows needs to
needs to be satisfied (Judge Judy balancer)
3rd is the Superego ­ the sense of morality (superman)
Each of the three steps occurs within the first 5 years...
An Adults personality is like a balancing act between the 3 aspects. Problems
occur when the balance is lost (neurosis).…read more

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Overview Summary Psychodynami
c Approach
Freud's 5 Stages of Psychosexual Development
1. Oral Stage
Birth to 18 months where the mouth is the focus of pleasure...
AN ORAL CHARACTER:
If fixated in this stage = envious, pessimistic + sarcastic
If overindulged = optimistic, admiring of others + gullible
2. Anal Stage
1 ½ to 2 years old where toilet training is the focus with the focus of
pleasure is the anus and expulsion or retention of faeces...…read more

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Overview Summary Psychodynami
c Approach
4. Latency Period
No sexual drive (more of a resting period). Repression of desires and
children form same-sex friends and focus on school and sport.
5. Genital Stage
Start of puberty where the focus in on the genitals and the formation of
heterosexual friend/relationships; if there is enough energy, a normal
relationship may be formed. If the person is fixated (particularly in the
phallic stage) they will have difficulties due to repression and defence
mechanisms.…read more

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Overview Summary Psychodynami
c Approach
Defence mechanisms seem to have strong validity: e.g., people often use
denial about bad news.
Id, ego & superego seem to have good validity, it can explain why we often
seem to be `pulled' in different directions & feel guilty about our desires.
It does seem to be the case that children develop in stages & that early
relationships with our families are very important in affecting our
development.…read more

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Overview Summary Psychodynami
c Approach
Accounts for Stages of Gender fixated at Continuous
changes development theory birth, yet development.
overtime cover first 5 years + hormones change We change as
fixation. over time. we're rewarded.
Inheritance. No stages.
Focus of early First 5 years are most Biology is given at Early years are
years important! (Resolving birth yet we important for
conflicts). mature throughout forming
life and hormone behaviour and
changes. learning, but we
continually learn
over time.…read more

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Overview Summary Psychodynami
c Approach
Dreams about wiping bottoms shows pleasure at the anal stage.
Hans got told off for playing with his widdler = castration fear.
Hans' fantasy of having a family shows Oedipus complex
Conclusion
Little Hans was evidence of the psychosexual stages and theory of how gender develops.
Evaluation
Page 8 of 8 g:\psychology\psychodynamic\overview.…read more

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