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The unconscious mind
Freud distinguished between three levels of the
The conscious- the mental process of which were
are completely aware of, such as memories that
can be retrieved.
The preconscious- memories in the mind that can be
recalled under certain circumstances.
The unconscious- material that can never be recalled
to the conscious such as instincts and memories.…read more

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· Freud is a major part of the psychodynamic
approach as he came up with most theories
and assumptions associated with the
psychodynamic approach. His main methods
were case studies, free association, slips of the
tongue and dream analysis. `Little Hans' the
case study supports the theory of gender
development. Axline was also influential as
her study on Dibs is also a key aspect of the
psychodynamic approach.…read more

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Case study method
· Clinical case studies are written up after the
event to demonstrate a point.
· An analysand will interpret the data from the
case study using the psychodynamic methods.
· Gather rich qualitative data on a specific
person or group.
· Can be subjective as data is not replicable.…read more

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Other Methods
· Freudian slips: the influence of the
unconscious leads us to say a word instead of
the one we were meant to say.
· Dream analysis: `the royal road to the
unconscious mind'. Manifest content-the real
interpretation of a dream. Latent content- the
symbolic interpretation of a dream.
· Free association: being able to speak freely
without being interrupted.…read more

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Defence mechanisms
· Repression: forgetting an unpleasant memory.
· Denial: refusal to admit an unpleasant fact.
· Reaction: adopting an attitude opposed to one's
real feelings.
· Projection: shifting unpleasant emotion on to
something or someone else.
· Displacement: shifting unpleasant emotions for
someone on to something or someone else.
· Regression: using the comforting behaviour of an
earlier age.…read more

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