Complete notes on Edexcel History, section C5 (Arab-Israeli conflict)

Includes after ww1, wat of independence, six day war and yom kippur war, superpower involvement in Middle East, and basically every othe bullet point in that section of the syllabus.

!! I did NOT make these notes, as you can see on the title page. So full credits go to the original author. My friend just emailed me this to help for the upcoming exams.

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  • Created on: 23-04-12 10:32
Preview of Complete notes on Edexcel History, section C5 (Arab-Israeli conflict)

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Edexcel IGCSE History
Option C5: Conflict, Crisis and
Change: The Middle East c1919-
Student Notes
by John Wright
Please note: The practice questions in this document have not been through Edexcel's quality
processes. All images included have been taken from Wikipedia and it is our understanding that they
are copyright free, however Edexcel will be happy to rectify any omissions of acknowledgement at first
© Edexcel 2011

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Chapter 1: Build up of tension in Palestine
Background to 1919
Jews had lived in Palestine at the time of the Romans but had been
expelled after two revolts in AD70 and AD135. They lived where
they could and were often persecuted. They were known as `Christ
killers' and as money lenders. Hatred of Jews (anti-semitism)
became common in Europe and by the end of the nineteenth
century violent attacks on them frequently occurred.…read more

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The McMahon Letter
This was an attempt to win the support of Arabs in the war against
Turkey. On 24 October 1915, Sir Henry McMahon, the British High
Commissioner, sent a letter to Emir Hussein, the Sherif of Mecca.
This became known as the McMahon letter.
Great Britain is prepared to recognise and support the
independence of the Arabs in all the regions demanded
by the Sherif of Mecca. Great Britain will protect the
Holy Places against all attacks.…read more

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This contradicted the promises made to the Palestinian Arabs in the
McMahon Letter and the Sykes-Picot Agreement that Britain would
back a Palestinian state in return for Arab support against Turkey
during the First World War. The position taken in the Balfour
declaration was reiterated in the Balfour Letter of 1919.
The Balfour Letter
In Palestine we do not propose even to go through the
process of consulting the present inhabitants of the
country.…read more

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Jewish immigrants) and 1929. In these
incidents, more than 30 Jews were killed and 339 wounded and the
Arabs lost 116 killed and 232 wounded. Many of the casualties were
at the hands of the British police and army. Immigration rose in the
mid-1920s when large numbers of Jews moved from Poland and
Russia and again after 1933 following the persecution of Jews in
Germany by the Nazis. There were about 150,000 Jews in Palestine
by 1930.…read more

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The Arabs thought that the British favoured the Jews by helping
developing their defence force (Haganah), fining Arabs
disproportionately, destroying Arab houses which were thought to
contain arms or terrorists and torturing Arab prisoners. Several
Arab mayors were hanged. The Arab revolt resulted in many deaths
­ British figures for 1938 are shown in the table below.…read more

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The Peel Commission
The Arab revolt made Britain consider its position in Palestine and in
1937, a Royal Commission was set up to report on the problem. The
Peel Commission suggested two states, an Arab state in the south
and a Jewish state in the north. This was accepted by the Jews, but
rejected by the Arabs, who were unwilling to hand over any
territory that they considered to be theirs by right.…read more

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An extract from the Peel Commission of 1937:
There is no common ground between the Jews and the
Arabs. They differ in religion and in language. Their
cultural and social life, their ways of thought and
conduct, are as incompatible as their national
aspirations. Neither Arab nor Jew has any sense of
service to a single State... The National Home cannot be
There was a further commission in 1938 which recommended
partition again.…read more

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The impact of the Second World War
When war broke out in Europe in 1939, the situation in Palestine
eased and many Jews volunteered to fight against Nazi Germany.
However, some Jews saw Britain as their main enemy and carried
out terrorist activities in the hope of forcing a withdrawal from
Palestine.…read more

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The British were very severe in their dealing with the Jewish
terrorist groups but this served only to lose them the support of the
moderates. In 1946, the Irgun planted bombs in the King David
Hotel in Jerusalem, where the British Military headquarters were. 91
people were killed and 45 were injured. The British response was to
arrest and intern leading Jewish figures. Ben Gurion had to flee to
Paris to avoid arrest.…read more


saima begum

thank you sooooooo much god bless you! :')


The Camp David Accord and Oslo Peace Accord is not there

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