Slides in this set
The multi store model of memory
· Suggested by Attkinson and Shiffron
· It is a linear model
· Information goes into the sensory memory store. Here, a small amount of
information can only be held for a few seconds. If attention is not paid to it, the
information will be lost
· If attention is paid to the information, it will move into the short term memory store.
This store can hold 7+- 2 `chunks' of information (this was discovered by Miller) and
it has a capacity of 18 seconds (this was discovered by Peterson and Peterson).
Information is encoded here acoustically. Information must be rehearsed from the
short term store, otherwise it will be forgotten
· If information is rehearsed, it will move to the long term memory store. This has an
unlimited capacity and information can be stored here for a lifetime.
· For information to be retrieved, a cue must be given, and it will move back in to the
short term memory store to be recalled.…read more
Evaluation of the multi store model
· This model provides and explanation of memory in its simplest terms. The mind is far more
complex than the multi store memory suggests. It doesn't account for many things such as
how we can remember everyday events without the need of rehearsal, just because they are
more interesting or funny.
· However, this explanation was a foundation for later work, and a building block for new
· It is supported by many research studies such as Murdock's primacy and recency effect
experiment. Here, it was found that when remembering a list of words, people would only
remember the first few and last few words on the list. Murdock suggested that this was
because the first few words had moved into our long term memory from rehearsal (primacy
effect), and the last few words were still in our short term memory (recency effect). This
study showed that there were two separate stores to memory.
· These studies do, however, lack ecological validity. This is because they are conducted in a
lab, and participants are not in their natural environment so they are less likely to show real
life behaviour like they would in the real world, because they know they are taking part in a
study. It is also highly unlikely that they would be asked in their everyday lives to remember
nonsense lists of words, so these studies cannot be applied to real life situations.…read more
The working memory model
· Baddley and Hitch believed that the multi store model of memory was far too simple,
and didn't account for the complexities of short term memory.
· They suggest that information goes into the central executive, this is the main
component and has many responsibilities such as switching attention between tasks,
filtering out irrelevant information etc. This has a limited capacity and duration.
· From the central executive, information either goes to the phonological loop, or visuo
· The phonological loop is a temporary storage system with a limited capacity, it holds all
acoustic information. It is sometimes known as the `inner voice' and contains the
articulatory loop, and phonological store.
· The visuo spacial sketchpad is a temporary storage system with a limited capacity. It
holds all visual and spacial information and is sometimes known as the `inner scribe'
· From these two stores, if information is rehearsed, it will move into the long term
Evaluation of the working model of memory
· This model of memory accounts for the complexities of the human brain (more so
than the multi store model). For example it accounts for things such as memory
defects in brain damaged patients like KF.
· Evidence for the phonological loop provided by baddley has provided useful
information that can be applied to real life. It shows that the phonological loop is
not active in some children with dyslexia for example.
· Brain scans have shown that different parts of the brain are active when performing
different tasks, meaning that there are separate stores in memory for different
· This model does not however, account for other senses. It only considers sight and
sound, but we can remember what things smell like as well as what they look or
sound like.…read more
Eye witness testimony and leading questions-
· Loftus wanted to see the effect of misleading information on EWT.
· To do this, she showed participants a video of the same car accident.
She then split the participants into groups and interviewed them.
They were all asked a similar question of `how fast was the car going
when it hit the other car?' however the verb was changed for each
group to `smashed', `bumped', `contacted' etc.
· Participants who heard the word `smashed' gave significantly higher
speed limits than those who heard the other verbs. Those who heard
`contacted' gave lower speed limits.
· Leading questions do effect EWT…read more