Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
.3.1 Unit 1 PSYB1 Introducing Psychology
3.1.1 Key Approaches in Psychology Specification:

3.1.1 Key Approaches in Psychology The basic assumptions/distinguishing features of the
Approaches: biological; behaviourist; social learning theory; cognitive;
Psychodynamic and humanistic.

The research methods used within each approach.

Biological: the influence of genes; genotype and phenotype;


Page 2

Preview of page 2
Biological Approach

The basic assumptions of the biological approach are:

Behaviour and thought processes have an innate, biological basis
The mind and brain are the same
Human genes have evolved to adapt behaviour to the environment
Human characteristics e.g. intelligence are due to our genetic makeup

Key terms:

Chromosomes: Part…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
1. Outline one assumption of biological assumption in psycho logy?
2. Explain one strength and one limitation of the biological approach?
3. Suggest how sexual selection in humans may be explained in terms of evolutionary


The basic assumptions of the behaviourist approach are:

Behaviour is learnt from the…

Page 4

Preview of page 4
Method: Albert was 11 months when the experiment was conducted. In the experiment, Watson
presented a white rat directly in front of Albert. When he reached for the rat, Watson would
simultaneously strike a metal bar with a hammer, thus creating a loud noise. This pairing of stimuli
occurred several…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
Summary Questions:

1. Describe one assumption of the behaviourist approach in psychology
2. What is meant by Law and Effect?
3. Explain one way in which the behaviourist approach has been applied in psychology?
4. Explain two limitations of the behaviourist approach in psychology
5. Jack is addicted to gambling.…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
explanations of behaviour, for example
acquisition of gender roles.
Key points:

Social learning theory takes into account the cognitive processes involved in learning
We can learn by observing others (role models) in our environment
There are four conditions necessary for effective modelling to occur, attention, retention,
motor reproduction and motivation…

Page 7

Preview of page 7
The cognitive approach

The basic assumptions of this approach are:

Mental processes lie between the stimulus and response.
Humans are information processors
Humans actively organise and manipulate information from the environment
The mind operates in the same way as a computer-both encode store and output data.

Key terms:

Cognition: (comes…

Page 8

Preview of page 8
Strengths Weaknesses
The cognitive approach focuses on internal Cognitive models have been criticized as
mental processes, unlike behaviourism over-simplistic- ignoring the complexity of the
The approach uses scientific experimental Humans are viewed as machines with crude
methods, unlike humanistic psychologists comparison of the mind to a computer (software

Page 9

Preview of page 9
The Psychodynamic Approach

The basic assumptions of the approach are:

Unconscious processes, of which we are unaware determine our behaviour
Instincts, or drives motivate our behaviour and energise the mind
Childhood experiences determine adult personality
Personality has 3 parts: ID, EGO and SUPEREGO

Key terms:

Free association: a method used…

Page 10

Preview of page 10
Oral 0-18 Months An infant's pleasure centres around the mouth. The mothers
breast becomes the object of desire since feeding reduces
the infant's negative experience of hunger
Anal 18-36 Months The child gains pleasure from retention and expulsion of
faeces. During toilet training, the child can either please
parents by…


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »