Abnormality Booklet for AS AQA A Psychology

A booklet on abnormality for AS AQA A Psychology. It has the definitions of abnormality (DSN, FFA, DIMH) and the explanations and treatments (Biological, Behavioural, Psychodynamic and Cognitive). It's pretty detailed I think, seriously it took me ages to write all these pages. Umm it has evaluations for everythingand I even drew the synapses on my laptop which was effort. Enjoy :)

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ABNORMALITY

Definitions of Abnormality
DEVIATION FROM SOCIAL NORMS (DSN):
SOMEONE WOULD BE DEEMED ABNORMAL IF THEY WERE TO VIOLATE SOCIAL NORMS.

Social norms are behaviours that are seen acceptable and expected within a given society. They can be
either explicit (e.g. laws; violating them could mean breaking the law)…

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Suffering (if the behaviour causes distress to the individual e.g. depression/anorexia)
Maladaptiveness (behaviour prevents an individual from achieving major life goals e.g. careers,
relationships etc. They are unable to adapt to a different situation)
Vividness and unconvientiality (behaviour stands out and is unusual in certain situations. A lack
of…

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Many people engage in behaviour that is maladaptive, harmful or threatening to themselves,
but aren't abnormal e.g. drinking.

DEVIATION FROM IDEAL MENTAL HEALTH (DIMH):
SOMEONE IS CONSIDERED ABNORMAL IF THEY DEVIATE FROM WHAT WE DEFINE AS NORMAL..

In this definition, instead of defining what is abnormal, we define what…

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THE BIOLOGICAL/MEDICAL EXPLANATION

AO1-MAIN ASSUMPTIONS:
Psychological disorders result from physical causes
Mental illness is diagnosed through identifying recognised symptoms
Once diagnosed, mental illness can be treated physically e.g. drugs

There are four branches to the biological model:

i. INFECTION: Just as physical illnesses can be caused by micro-organisms such…

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Conclusions: The results suggest a genetic basis for anorexia and general psychiatric illness. The fact
that the percentage for MZ twins was well below 100% indicates that genes are not wholly
responsible.

Criticisms:

Study ignores the role of environmental factors or nurture in causing anorexia. The
environment certainly plays…

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Treatments of the Biological Approach
Psychosurgery

In the 1930's psychosurgery was developed to treat schizophrenia. It involved destroying brain tissue
connecting higher and lower thinking of the brain. American scientists found that damaging the frontal
lobes and the prefrontal cortex could pacify a previously aggressive chimpanzee. A Portuguese
psychiatrist,…

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Electro convulsive therapy (ECT)

This is where an electric current is passed through the brain, to induce a seizure. It affects the
neurotransmitter activity. It stems from convulsive therapy, where
seizures were induced through other methods such as drugs to treat
severe schizophrenia (1930's) and depression (1950's). Today it…

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Drug therapy

Antipsychotics - The earliest drug therapy was
chlorpromazine which was used to treat symptoms such as
hallucinations and paranoia in the 1950's. It worked by
reducing dopamine activity in the brain. The problem is that
the drug has side effects such as Parkinson's. More recently
psychiatrists have…

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PSYCHODYNAMIC EXPLANATION

AO1-MAIN ASSUMPTIONS:
Abnormality is the result of psychological causes rather than physical.
Our behaviour is driven by unconscious motives
Childhood is a critical period (Bowlby) and determines our adult personality/behaviour
Conflict can arise within the psyche (id, ego and superego) and during the psychosexual stages
of development…

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The three parts of the psyche are driven by different desires. A healthy psyche should be balanced; it
has a strong ego that is able to satisfy both the demands of the id and the ego. Problems arise if this
balance is not maintained.




Defence mechanisms:

Comments

rose

Thank you! This was really helpful

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