Citizenship Short Course Notes

citizenship notes for short course aqa gcse

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Citizenship Notes
Chapter 1
ADVOCACY ­ The representation or support of a person or an organisation by writing,
speaking or taking action on behalf of that person or organisation.
PRESSURE GROUP ­ A group of people who take action to try to influence the government
about a specific issue.
CAMPAIGNING ­ Actions or events organised by an individual or group of people to achieve
an aim.
Suffrage ­ Right to vote
Chapter 2

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Each councillor in the cabinet has a special responsibility for one of the services, e.g.
Chapter 3
Rights ­ Something we are entitled to by the law.
Responsibilities ­ Something that we are expected to do ­ a duty.…read more

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Trading Standard Officers ­ They give advice and investigate complaints.
The Office of Fair Trading (OFT) ­ A government department that deals with consumer
The Sales of Goods Act 1979 ­ This refers to all goods sold and states that they should be
as described of satisfactory quality and fit for purpose.
The Sales of Goods and Services Act 1982 ­ This deals with the services that you pay for e.g.
hairdressing or building etc.…read more

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Chapter 5
Proportional Representation ­ A system of electing people that reflects the wishers of
the voter.
Lowering the voting age to 16
If you are 16+ you are allowed to marry with Many 16-18 year olds don not want to vote
parental consent and bring up children. You and they are not mature enough to consider
are allowed to join the army. You are charged all the options that the political parties offer.…read more

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We have the
majority of the people. right not to vote. Compulsory voting does
A true democratic mandate for the not enhance democracy. People forced to
government. Decrease apathy. Civic duty vote are unlikely to vote intelligently.
to vote. Cause more people to become Voting does not make sense as a
interested in politics. rewardable/punishable action.
First Past The Post The person with the most votes England
wins. Each person has one vote.…read more

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Stereotypes-A generalised view about a type of person or group of people.
Tolerance ­ Acceptance of people, even though you may not like them or agree with them.
Labelling ­ A theory where terms or labels applied to a person or group may influence their
Brutishness is a national identity. It's made up of different parts (England, Ireland, Scotland
and Wales) and cultures. Brutishness is a collection of different ideas and shared values that
we can all associate with and aspire to.…read more

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In 2001, the Equality Standard for the local government was introduced to implement
equality within all area of local government.
Chapter 8
Right of children
Right to non-discrimination.
Right to have the child's best interest considered in all action concerning children.
Childs right to life, survival and development.
Child right to be heard.
Chapter 9
Anarchy ­ A state of lawlessness and disorder where there is no government and no laws.…read more

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Common Law ­ Law based on decisions made by judges over the years.
Statue Law ­ Law made by parliament.
Mediation ­ An intervention conducted by some impartial party for the purpose of bringing
about a settlement to a dispute.
Arbitration ­ The hearing and determination of a dispute by an impartial referee agreed to
by both parties.
Ombudsman ­ A person in a government agency to who people can go to, to make
Acquittal ­ A verdict of not guilty.…read more

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Adoption ­ If you are under 18, you can get adopted but you don't need to know who your
birth parents are. You have little say on who adopts you.
Changing your name ­ If you are 16 or 17, you can change your name with parental consent.
Local Authority Care ­ You can be taken into car if you are under 18. You have the right to
who why you are in care, and how long you will stay there.…read more

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Criminal responsibility ­ When a young person is held responsible for his/her own
behaviour and can be found guilty in court.
Anti-Social Behaviour Order (ASBO) ­ A statutory order. A breach of this can lead to
imprisonment of legal action.
Child Safety Orders ­ Only apply to children under 10. A social worker or officer from the
youth offending team supervises the child.
10 is the legal age for criminal responsibility.…read more



thank you so much!



Jenny Smith

Really helpful! Thanks! :)


is this defo for the short course and not the full course?

(soo much to learn)

George Fairbrother



this has been a very big help. thank you! 

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