Citizenship - Unit 1 - COMPLETE!!!

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AS CITIZENSHIP STUDIES
UNIT 1
CHAPTER 1:
`WHAT IS A CITIZEN, AND WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE BRITISH?'
WHAT IS A CITIZEN?
A citizen is a member of a nation state. By being a member of a nation state a citizen has
rights (e.g. free speech, free health care, free education etc.) and responsibilities (e.g. to
be law-abiding and to contribute to the well-being of the nation state).
For a nation state to operate effectively it is important that its citizens share common
values (e.g. equality, justice, prosperity etc.) and also a common identity (e.g. a sense of
Britishness, history and heritage, patriotism etc.)
A subject is different from a citizen however. A subject does not have the same rights as a
citizen and can be understood as `second-class', e.g. Jews in Nazi Germany, blacks in South
Africa under aparthied etc. A democratic society like the UK has citizens however, not
subjects.
ACTIVE CITIZENSHIP
In 1997 The Crick Report argued the need for active citizenship in the UK where citizens
were `active' and `responsible' in `participating effectively in society'. It was pointed out
however that there is a difference between `active citizenship' and `good citizenship', i.e.
being `nice and fair' is simply not enough, people need to be practical and constructive in
their efforts, e.g. arranging a party for deprived children is not as effective as setting up an
after-school club where deprived children can learn important social skills like team building,
independence etc.
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CITIZEN'S RIGHTS AND DUTIES
Following the Human Rights Act (1998), citizens of a democratic nation state enjoy both
human rights and legal rights. Human rights are the rights we are born with (e.g. the right
to live free from persecution and oppression etc.), and they cannot be given or taken away
by the state. Legal rights however are given by the state (e.g. freedom of speech and
expression etc.) and can also be taken away, e.g.…read more

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Christianity (secularism). The issue here
is, what is England's national focus and what is there to believe in and support?
English national identity however is defined by the social groups we belong to
(e.g. family, community, education, workplace, region etc.) and our shared culture
(e.g. our beliefs, attitudes, norms, customs and habits).
Essential factors which inform national identity and our rights can be understood
by using the D.I.S.G.R.A.C.E. mnemonic, i.e. disability (physical/mental), income,
sexuality, gender, race/religion, age, class and education.…read more

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Legal rights: rights or entitlements citizens are granted by a state and which can be
taken away.
Welfare state: a system which provides health and economic support and benefits
for those citizens who find themselves unemployed, elderley or sick.
Citizenship test: a 45 minute exam which tests foreigners on British society, history
and culture and who wish to become British citizens.
Culture: ways of living in a society, the beliefs, attitudes, norms, customs and habits
we all share as citizens.…read more

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AS CITIZENSHIP STUDIES
UNIT 1
CHAPTER 2:
`HOW SOCIALLY DIVERSE IS BRITAIN?'
POPULATION
A country's population is determined by its birth rate, death rate and net migration. There
are more people entering the UK (immigrants) than leaving the country (emigrants); also
people are living longer (life expectancy). As a result, the UK population is growing.
Naturally, an increased population will have a direct affect on the UK's politics, health
service, education, law and order, welfare system and culture.…read more

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Immigration increased rapidly after 1948 when the SS Empire Windrush arrived from the
Caribbean to bring workers to fill skilled and semi-skilled jobs which British workers didn't
want. This was followed in the 1950s by migrant workers arriving from India and Pakistan to
seek better employment and education in the UK.
Refugees and asylum seekers are not the same as migrant workers. Migrant workers have
arrived in the UK to find employment while refugees and asylum seekers have arrived here
to seek safety.…read more

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THREE MODELS OF RACE RELATIONS IN THE UK
A MORI poll conducted in 2005 found that 62% of people believe multiculturalism makes
Britain a better place; 32% believe it to be a threat to the British way of life; 58% believe
immigrants should adopt British values/traditions; while 28% believe immigrants should
follow their own values/traditions.…read more

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WHAT IS STEREOTYPING?
Prejudice (whether racism, sexism, ageism, homophobia etc.) is based on an active belief in
stereotypes. In this case stereotypes are ill-informed generalisations about members of a
certain social group (such as their looks, beliefs, behaviour, lifestyle etc.) which then makes it
easier to put forward negative and/or harmful judgements about them. Stereotypes often
arise out of fear of members of particular groups.…read more

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Ethnic cleansing: the expulsion or extermination of masses of people due to their
cultural and/or religious identity and background.
Refugees: immigrants who have left their country of origin to avoid persecution,
violence or death.
Homogeneity: similarity or sameness.
Race: shared genetic descent and physical characteristics.
Multi-ethnic society: a diverse range of rthnic groups in society.
Ideology: a set or system of ideas, beliefs, values, assumptions, attitudes and
opinions held by social groups which is then used to help make sense of the human
world.…read more

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UNIT 1
CHAPTER 3:
`PREJUDICE, DISCRIMINATION AND DISADVANTAGE'
PREJUDICE
Prejudice means to make one's mind up about members of a social group without fully
understanding their beliefs, customs, perspectives or cultural background. Prejudice then
leads to the unfair treatment of this social group, i.e. discrimination.
FORMS OF PREJUDICE
Many different social groups have suffered prejudice throughout history, e.g. Romany
gypsies, Jews, Blacks, the disabled, women, homosexuals, immigrants etc.…read more

Comments

safiyyah khalid

thankz

Johnbaker

great!

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