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Unit 1 Psychology Revision Guide
(Child Social Development)
Specification
Early relationships
Attachment, and the role of caregiver-infant interactions in the development of attachment, including
reference to human and animal studies.
Function of attachment.
Secure and insecure attachment.
Measuring attachment.
Possible short-term and long-term consequences of privation and deprivation.
Romanian orphan…

Page 2

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Motherese: adapted talk for babies. Snow and Ferguson (1977) identified distinctive language patterns
demonstrated by adults conversing with young children. It helps draw children into conversation.


Animal studies
Humans aren't alone in their need for early social interaction.
Harlow (1965): Infant monkey
Aim: To determine the role of food and…

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Method: Interviewed 44 teenagers who involved with criminal activity, and living with biological parents,
in order to assess whether they exhibited signs of affectionless psychopathy. Also interviewed parents to
see if the children had prolonged early separation. He matched them up with teens who'd be classified as
affectionless psychopaths with…

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Method : Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg (1988) did not collect the data for this study, instead they
analysed data from other studies using a method called meta-analysis. Data from 32 studies in 8 different
countries was analysed. All the 32 studies used the strange situation procedure to study attachment.
Using…

Page 5

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Detachment: Child eventually began to take an interest in their surroundings. However if they
reached this stage, children frequently rejected their primary carer.
Evaluation of Robertson and Robertson:
Strength's:
Powerful documentary evidence of the effect of short term separations. The first time anyone had
shown the distress caused and detrimental…

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According to Rutter (1981) there are many sources of individual differences in vulnerability to the short
term and long term effects of deprivation, including:
Age ­ children are especially vulnerable between 7 months-3 years (Maccoby)
Gender ­ boys on average respond worse to separation than girls.
Temperament ­ differences in…

Page 7

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2 boys suffered maltreatment from the ages of 18mth ­ 7yrs. Left in cellar by step- mother. At 7
they had no speech, suffering from malnutrition and lacking in social ability. At 9 they were
fostered with good adoptive carers. They both recovered well emotionally and cognitively. By 10
they…

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By submerging the children in intensely stimulating environments it appeared to bring back some
functions.
Hodges & Tizard adoption study ­ Reversal:
Longitudinal study into whether experiencing early institutionalisation until at least 2 years of age
will lead to long term problems in adolescence for adopted and restored children. They…

Page 9

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Continuation and Consolidation: maintaining established friendships
Deterioration: friendships decline over time, if not maintained
Ending: formal and announced or contact avoided
Age: Selman and Jaquette (1977):
Studied 225 individuals aged between 4 and 32 years
were interviewed about friendships
Developed five overlapping stages of friendship
Conclusion: Found that friendships change…

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Later relationships
The development of friendship in childhood and adolescence.
Discuss Sex differences in children's friendship
Boys and Girls seem to make friends and maintain friendships in different ways.
Even before the concepts of `boy' & `girl' are properly developed, children start to prefer the company of
their own sex.…

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