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Social interaction

  • The ability to think and reason is 'the outcome of a fundamentally social process' in which cognitive skills develop as the child interacts with other people.
  • Children learn through interactions with others - child responds to the world through its actions; society gives meaning to those actions.
  • Cognitive development proceeds as the child gradually internalises the meanings provided by these social interactions.
  • The child is an apprentice who develops skills and mental tools of the trade.
  • Cognitive development comes from the 'interplay between spontaneous, natural development and the social interaction of children with adults and peers.


  • Language and thinking develop in parallel to each other; as our ability to use language improves this increases out ability to think and vice versa.
  • Language directs and controls our thinking.
  • Language splits between these two functions as we develop an abbreviated inner voice for thinking, and a more articulate vocabulary to…


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