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6GE03 June 2015
Section B Question 6 ­ Biodiversity Under Threat (Arctic)
Preamble
The Arctic is a compulsory case study for the AS Unit 1 (impact of global climate change - GCC). Though
it is not an obvious choice for high biodiversity, it has huge areas of wilderness that are…

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and ocean sediments are large sinks for C0 2 and methane. Outgassing of methane as the permafrost
warms is a concern as it is a major contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions.
Figure 5 summarises some key pints of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) which was
published in 2005. The…

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III. Arctic Global Sanctuary ­ more akin to the International Antarctic Treaty in the southern
hemisphere (ratified in 1959 and renewed for another 50 years in 2009). The AGS would create
a Biosphere Reserve as suggested by Greenpeace at the 2012 Rio+20 Earth Summit ­ this would
leave the area…

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Introduction of alien species
Noise and light pollution
Pollution threat ­ e.g. oil spills
Effects on climate regulation ­ melting ice and reduction in albedo
Impact on indigenous cultures
Melting of permafrost will lead to local and eustatic sea level rise and release of stored
methane and carbon dioxide



Example…

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A shortcomings of the AGS strategy is its sustainability. Does it provide long-term employment
and sustainability as suggested was required for successful environmental management in the
Brundtland Report `Our Common Future' (1987)?




JUNE2010




PRACTICEQUESTIONS [NO MORE THAN THAT PLEASE]
(a) Explain why the Arctic Region has such a high biodiversity…

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temperate and tropical areas. Marine and terrestrial ecosystems such as vast areas of lowland
tundra, wetlands, mountains, extensive shallow ocean shelves, millennia-old ice shelves and huge
seabird cliffs are characteristic to the Arctic. These are now at risk, according to the report

Climate change is by far the worst threat…

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Tourism poses several other threats. Unsustainable levels of hunting and fishing, particularly illegal
poaching, are especially worrisome in Russia. Vehicle and foot traffic can damage fragile tundra
soils and vegetation. The Icelandic tourism industry, for example, promotes off-road driving in its
efforts to increase tourism. Garbage, waste, and pollution are…

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