Biology glossary

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  • Created on: 28-10-12 11:33
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Anaerobic respiration Cellular Biodiesel Diesel fuel made from
A respiration in the absence of plant materials.
Abdomen The lower region of the oxygen. Biomass The amount of biological
body. In humans it contains the material in an organism.
Anomalous A measurement that is
digestive organs, kidneys, etc. Biomass fuel Fuel from animal
well away from the pattern shown
Accuracy An accurate waste or cut-down plants.
by other results.
measurement is close to the true Bladder The organ where urine is
Anorexia nervosa a mental
value. stored until it is released from the
disorder linked to an unrealistic
Acid A substance that produces body.
body image and a need for
hydrogen ions when it dissolves in Blood The liquid which is pumped
water. around the body by the heart. It
Antibiotics Drugs which destroy
Acid rain Rain that is acidic due to contains blood cells, dissolved
bacteria inside the body without
dissolved gases, such as sulphur food, oxygen, waste products,
damaging human cells.
dioxide, produced by the burning mineral ions, hormones and other
Antigens The unique proteins on
of fossil fuels. substances needed in the body or
the surface of a cell. They are
Activation energy The minimum needing to be removed from the
recognised by the immune system
amount of energy needed for a body.
as `self' or `non-self'.
given chemical reaction to take Blood plasma The clear yellow
Aqueous solution A solution with
place. liquid part of the blood which
water as the solvent.
Active site The site on an enzyme carries dissolved substances and
where the reactants bind.
Arthritis A painful and debilitating
blood cells around the body.
disease affecting the joints.
Active transport The movement of Blood vessels The tubes which
substances against a Association When two variables
carry blood around the body, i.e.
concentration gradient and/or change together, but they are both
arteries, veins and capillaries.
across a cell membrane, using linked by a third variable. E.g. lack
energy. of carbon dioxide in soil and poor C
Adaptations Special features which growth of plants: both could be
Carbohydrases Enzymes which
make an organism particularly well linked to too much water in the
speed up the breakdown of
suited to the environment where it soil.
Aerobic Using oxygen.
B Carbon cycle The cycling of carbon
through the living and non-living
Aerobic respiration The process Bar charts Used when the world.
by which food molecules are independent variable is categoric Carbon neutral A process which
broken down using oxygen to and the dependent variable is uses as much carbon dioxide as it
release energy for the cells. continuous. produces.
Agar The nutrient jelly on which Bias The influence placed on Carcinogen A chemical which is
many microorganisms are scientific evidence because of: known to cause cancer.
cultured. wanting to prove your own ideas; Carriers People who have a single
Alcohol The commonly used name supporting the person who is recessive allele for a genetic
for drinks containing ethanol. paying you; political influence; the disease.
Alcoholics People who are status of the experimenter. Catalyst A substance that speeds
addicted to alcohol. Binge drinking Short bouts of very up the rate of another reaction but
Alleles A version of a particular gene. heavy drinking. is not used up or changed itself.
Alveoli The tiny air sacs in the lungs Biogas Gas made by the action of Categoric variable These tell us
which increase the surface area microorganisms on the remains of the name of the variable, e.g. oak
for gaseous exchange. living organisms. tree, beech tree, ash tree.
Amino acids The building blocks of Biological detergents Washing Causal link One change in a
protein. detergents that contain enzymes. variable has caused a change in

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another variable. You can only be conclusion must not go beyond structure broken down and can no
reasonably certain of this when the data available. longer catalyse a reaction.
you have valid and reliable Constrict To narrow. Dependent variable The variable
evidence. E.g. increasing light Continuous variable A continuous that you are measuring as a result
intensity causes an increase in the variable can be any numerical of changing the independent
rate of photosynthesis. value, e.g. your own weight. variable, e.g.…read more

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Double circulation The separate experimentation on animals to Earth due to greenhouse gases in
circulation of the blood from the develop new drugs. the atmosphere trapping infra-red
heart to the lungs and then back Evidence Scientific evidence radiation from the surface.
to the heart and on to the body. should be reliable and valid. It can Glucagon Hormone involved in the
take many forms. It could be an control of blood sugar levels.
E observation, a measurement or Glucose A simple sugar.…read more

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a transplanted organ to prevent independent and the dependent many measurements there are.
rejection. variables are both continuous. Don't forget to ignore any
Independent variable The Line of best fit Used to show the anomalous results.
variable that you have decided to underlying relationship between Meiosis The two-stage process of
change in an investigation, e.g. the independent and the cell division which reduces the
the temperature of the enzyme in dependent variables.…read more

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Net Overall. Predator An animal which preys on
Neurones Basic cells of the
P other animals for food.
nervous system which carry Pancreas An organ which produces Prediction A hypothesis that can be
minute electrical impulses around the hormone insulin and many used to design an investigation
the body. digestive enzymes. e.g. I predict that if I increase the
Nicotine Colourless, poisonous Partially permeable Allowing only amount of water given to plants
substance which is the addictive certain substances to pass through.…read more

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Renewable energy Energy from into the stem cells found in Theory A theory is not a guess or a
sources that never run out, embryonic tissue and in some fact. It is the best way to explain
including wind energy, wave adult tissues. why something is happening. E.g.
energy, tidal energy, Stimulus A change which causes a Sea levels are rising, and the
hydroelectricity, solar energy and response in the body. global warming theory is the best
geothermal energy.…read more

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Valid Describes an investigation that Wilting The process by which Yield The amount of product formed
successfully gathers the data plants droop when they are short in a chemical reaction.
needed to answer the original of water or too hot. This reduces
question. Data may not be valid further water loss and prevents Z
if you have not carried out a fair cell damage. Zero error A systematic error, often
test.…read more


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