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Biology 1

- Fit for life
- What's for lunch?
- Keeping Healthy
- Keeping in touch
- Drugs and You
- Staying in balance
- Gene control
- Who am i?

Topic 1

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Fit for life
Oxygen is the gas used in aerobic respiration.
Word equation for respiration-
Glucose + oxygen ---> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy.
Symbol equation for respiration-
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ------> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy

Anaerobic respiration releases much less energy than aerobic respiration.
After hard…

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What's for lunch?
Balanced diet and BMI-
Children's health in the 2nd world war improved because of their balanced diets.
We need lots of carbohydrates and fats to give us energy, but if we eat too much of
them and do not exercise enough we can become very overweight (Obese).…

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physical digestion, protease, specific, surface area.

Keeping Healthy
microorganisms spread disease, these are called pathogens.
There are different types of pathogens-
- Fungi that can cause athletes foot.
- Bacteria that can cause cholera.
- Viruses that can cause flu (influenza).
- Protozoa that can cause dysentery.
These pathogens…

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Key words: benign, contagious, host, infectious disease, insecticide, life cycle, malignant, microorganism,
parasite, pathogen, protozoan, vector.

Keeping in touch
The Eye-
Cornea- refracts light (bends light)
Lens- focuses light on the retiner.
Iris- controls amount of light going into the eye.
Pupil- made bigger or smaller by the iris.

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The nervous system-
The central nervous system (CNS) in humans consists of the brain and spinal cord. When a receptor is
stimulated, it sends a signal along the nerve cells - neurones - to the brain. The brain then co-ordinates the
An effector is any part of the…

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and others make sticky mucus. Cigarettes smoke stops the cilia from moving. Dust and particulates collect
and irritate the cells. Smokers cough to move this mess upwards so it can be swallowed.

Alcohol -
drinking alcohol has short term effects. A person who has drunk alcohol may:
- Do silly…

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Some changes happen to everyone, both boys and girls, while others happen in one sex only.
Here are some changes that happen to both boys and girls:
- pubic hair grows
- underarm hair grows
Here are some changes that happen to boys only:
- voice breaks - gets deeper…

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- The camel has 70 chromosomes in each body cell.
- The squirrel has 40 chromosomes in each body cell.
- The mosquito has 6 chromosomes in each body cell.
Humans have 46 chromosomes, arranged in 23 pairs, in each cell.
Eggs and sperm (Gametes) have only one chromosome from…

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recessive allele.
Alleles are different versions of the same gene.
Darren has no ear lobes. Symbols are used to work out the genetic cross.

Darren's mother Ee heterozygous, lobes
Darren's Father Ee heterozygous, lobes

Possible combinations of egg and sperm:

Key words: characteristic, environment, gene, inherit, mutation,
sex chromosome, XX…


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