OCR Biology 1

Hi, I have just taken my GCSE in biology 1, chemistry 1 and physics 1 today. To help me revise I create revision guides and then look through them to brush up on stuff. I don't need to use it any more so I thought it might help someone else :)

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  • Created by: Hannah
  • Created on: 13-01-11 18:50
Preview of OCR Biology 1

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Biology 1
- Fit for life
- What's for lunch?
- Keeping Healthy
- Keeping in touch
- Drugs and You
- Staying in balance
- Gene control
- Who am i?
Topic 1

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Fit for life
Respiration-
Oxygen is the gas used in aerobic respiration.
Word equation for respiration-
Glucose + oxygen ---> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy.
Symbol equation for respiration-
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ------> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
Anaerobic respiration releases much less energy than aerobic respiration.
After hard exercise, lactic acid collects in the muscles. Lactic acid damages the
muscles temporarily. This is why your muscles hurt after exercise.…read more

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What's for lunch?
Balanced diet and BMI-
Children's health in the 2nd world war improved because of their balanced diets.
We need lots of carbohydrates and fats to give us energy, but if we eat too much of
them and do not exercise enough we can become very overweight (Obese). If you
become obese you will have a higher risk of suffering from arthritis, heart disease,
diabetes and breast cancer.…read more

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Keeping Healthy
Pathogens-
microorganisms spread disease, these are called pathogens.
There are different types of pathogens-
- Fungi that can cause athletes foot.
- Bacteria that can cause cholera.
- Viruses that can cause flu (influenza).
- Protozoa that can cause dysentery.
These pathogens cause infectious diseases. This means the diseases spread to other
people. If the disease spreads directly from person to person it is called contagious. Cancer
and inherited disorders, such as red- green colour deficiency, are not caused by pathogens.…read more

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Key words: benign, contagious, host, infectious disease, insecticide, life cycle, malignant, microorganism,
parasite, pathogen, protozoan, vector.
Keeping in touch
The Eye-
Cornea- refracts light (bends light)
Lens- focuses light on the retiner.
Iris- controls amount of light going into the eye.
Pupil- made bigger or smaller by the iris.
Retina- contains cells which are light sensitive.
Optic nerve- carries nerve impulses to brain.
Monocular vision is when you can only see with one eye. Binocular vision is where you see through two
eyes.…read more

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The nervous system-
The central nervous system (CNS) in humans consists of the brain and spinal cord. When a receptor is
stimulated, it sends a signal along the nerve cells - neurones - to the brain. The brain then co-ordinates the
response.
Effectors:
An effector is any part of the body that produces the response.…read more

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Cigarettes smoke stops the cilia from moving. Dust and particulates collect
and irritate the cells. Smokers cough to move this mess upwards so it can be swallowed.
Alcohol -
drinking alcohol has short term effects. A person who has drunk alcohol may:
- Do silly things.
- Easily lose their balance.
- Find it hard to talk clearly.
- Find it difficult to use their muscles.
- Die of alcohol poisoning if they have drunk too much.
There are also long term effects.…read more

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Some changes happen to everyone, both boys and girls, while others happen in one sex only.…read more

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The camel has 70 chromosomes in each body cell.
- The squirrel has 40 chromosomes in each body cell.
- The mosquito has 6 chromosomes in each body cell.
Humans have 46 chromosomes, arranged in 23 pairs, in each cell.
Eggs and sperm (Gametes) have only one chromosome from each pair, they combine to
make a fertilised egg that has 46 chromosomes.
Key words: A,T,G,C, chromosomes, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), double helix, bases, genes, genetic code,
switched off, clone, cutting, egg, enzyme, fertilise, gametes, sperm.…read more

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Alleles are different versions of the same gene.
Darren has no ear lobes. Symbols are used to work out the genetic cross.
Darren's mother Ee heterozygous, lobes
Darren's Father Ee heterozygous, lobes
Possible combinations of egg and sperm:
Key words: characteristic, environment, gene, inherit, mutation,
sex chromosome, XX chromosome, XY chromosome, allele, base sequence, cross-pollinate, dominant,
generation, genetic cross, heterozygous, homozygous, monohybrid cross, recessive, stem cell.…read more

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