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Biological Molecules

(a) Describe how hydrogen bonding occurs between water molecules, and relate this, and other
properties of water, to the roles of water in living organisms



The negative charge of the oxygen molecule attracts to the
positive charge of the hydrogen molecule forming a weak
hydrogen bond.



Example

Property…

Page 2

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(c) Describe, with the aid of diagrams, the formation and breaking of peptide bonds in the
synthesis and hydrolysis of dipeptides and polypeptides




As two amino acids come
close together a peptide
bond is formed by two
hydrogen atoms from one
amino acid join with an
oxygen atom from the…

Page 3

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The proteins secondary structure is formed when the primary structure coils or folds to form an
helix or a pleated sheet. Hydrogen bonds hold all these coils in place.



(f) Explain, with the aid of diagrams, the term tertiary structure, with reference to hydrophobic
and hydrophilic interactions, disulphide bonds and…

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polypeptides and four haemgroups (Fe+2)



(h) Describe with the aid of diagrams the structure of a collagen molecule




Collagen is a fibrous protein made up of a triple helix of
polypeptide chains, hydrogen bonds are present between the
chains. Each collagen molecule forms covalent cross-links with
other collagen molecules, these…

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(k) State the structural differences between glucose and glucose

On an glucose molecule the -OH on 1st Carbon atom is below the C where as on a glucose it is
above.




(l) Describe , with the aid of diagrams, the formation and breakage of glycosidic bonds in the
synthesis and…

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(n) Describe, with the ad of diagrams, the structure of glycogen




(o) Explain how the structures of glucose, starch (amylose), glycogen and cellulose molecules
relate to their functions in living organisms

Glucose- simplest sugar used in respiration

Starch- insoluble in water so doesn't affect water potential of cell, the storage…

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Triglyceride- Glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acid groups

Phospholipid-Glycerol molecule, 2 fatty acids, and a phosphate group

(q) Explain how the structures of triglycerides, phospholipid and cholesterol molecules relate to
their functions in living organisms

Triglycerides- compact and water potential not affected as it is insoluble, stored as fat.

Phospholipids-…

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proteins are present
shorter polypeptide chains are present
no proteins are present
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