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Page 1

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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Water
Water !
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Cohesion Attraction between molecules of the same type

Hydrogen Bonding Electromagnetic attractive interaction between pair
of polar molecules

Dipolar A molecule having two such charges or poles eg
Water

Hydrophobic Tendency too repel water - not mix with

Hydrophilic Tendency to mix…

Page 2

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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Water

Hydrolysis !
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The opposite to condensation. A large molecule is plot into smaller sections by breaking a
bond and adding -H to one and -OH to the other. !
This produces similar substances. Hydrolysis = Splitting By water. Food Digestion is hydrolysis !
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Page 3

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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Inorganic Ions
Inorganic Ions!
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Inorganic Ions are formed when 1 or more electrons are lost from or gained by atoms. Ions can be
positive or negative depending on whether or not they loose or gain an ion.!
Most of them are highly soluble.!
They are…

Page 4

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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Summary
http://getrevising.co.uk/revision-cards/water_and_inorganic_ions!
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Page 5

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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Carbohydrates
Homework - Make notes on how carbohydrates are used as energy store. (pages 94-95)!
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Energy and Structure!
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- The breaking of Glucose into simpler molecules of water and carbon dioxide during respiration
releases energy!
- The energy is used to make ATP!
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Page 6

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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Carbohydrates
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Carbon -!
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All biological molecules contain carbon (other than Water) !
Has a valency of 4 = forms 4 covalent bonds !
They bond together to form long chains and rings !
Other atoms can also bond to the chains and rings to…

Page 7

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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are a group of substances used as both energy sources and structural materials in
organisms.!
All carbohydrates contain Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. !
They have the general formula Cx(H2)y. !



3 Types of Carbohydrates!
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Monosaccharides - simple sugars with general formula (CH2O)n. n…

Page 8

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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Carbohydrates
Fructose and Galactose!
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2 more hexose monosaccharides are fructose and galactose!
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Galactose isn't as soluble as glucose - important in the production of glycolipids and glycoproteins. !
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Fructose is the…

Page 9

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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Carbohydrates
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Sucrose = 1 Glucose and 1 Fructose !
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Maltose = 2 Glucose Molecules !
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Lactose = Galactose and Glucose !
(Beta 1-4 Glycosidic Bond) !…

Page 10

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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Carbohydrates
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Structural Carbohydrates!
- Cellulose fibres are arranged specifically to form plant walls !
- This makes them very strong!
- Because of the…

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