Biological Revision Notes

Notes that I made for the topic, I don't have any for other subjects. I recommend that you make these yourself (although it takes forever) but its worth it

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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Water
Water !
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Cohesion Attraction between molecules of the same type
Hydrogen Bonding Electromagnetic attractive interaction between pair
of polar molecules
Dipolar A molecule having two such charges or poles eg
Water
Hydrophobic Tendency too repel water - not mix with
Hydrophilic Tendency to mix with water, able to get wet
Specific Heat Capacity Amount of energy to raise the temperature of 1
gram of substance by 1ºC
Oxygen Water contains 1 of these
Hydrogen Water contains 2 of these
Adhesion the physical attraction of joining 2 substances
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Hydrogen Bonding !
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Because of the way that the hydrogen
bond are bonded to the Oxygen mean
that the oxygen has a slightly negative
charge, (shown as -) and the
hydrogens become slightly positive
(shown as +). !
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This means that the + oxygen from one
molecule of water attracts the -
hydrogen from another molecule. These
bonds are called hydrogen bonds and
are constantly making and breaking in
water. They are solid in ice. !
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Condensation (reaction)!
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A chemical process by which 2 molecules are joined together to make a larger more complex
molecule with loss of water by doing so. !
These reactions are the basis for all important biological macromolecules from similar sub-
units.!
Molecules with projecting -H atoms are linked to other molecules with projecting -OH groups.
Producing H2O. Which then moves away from the original molecule. !
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A-H + B-OH A-B + H2O
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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Water
Hydrolysis !
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The opposite to condensation. A large molecule is plot into smaller sections by breaking a
bond and adding -H to one and -OH to the other. !
This produces similar substances. Hydrolysis = Splitting By water. Food Digestion is hydrolysis !
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A-B + H2O A-H + B-OH
Properties of Water Reason
Universal Solvent The polarity of water helps to make it useful as a
solvent.…read more

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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Inorganic Ions
Inorganic Ions!
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Inorganic Ions are formed when 1 or more electrons are lost from or gained by atoms. Ions can be
positive or negative depending on whether or not they loose or gain an ion.!
Most of them are highly soluble.!
They are important to our body systems. !
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Ion ! Information
Calcium, Ca Part of Calcium Phosphate. Which is the
structural component of teeth and bones.…read more

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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Summary
http://getrevising.co.…read more

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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Carbohydrates
Homework - Make notes on how carbohydrates are used as energy store.…read more

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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Carbohydrates
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Carbon -!
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All biological molecules contain carbon (other than Water) !
Has a valency of 4 = forms 4 covalent bonds !
They bond together to form long chains and rings !
Other atoms can also bond to the chains and rings to form many different molecules
with different structures and properties !
Carbon is a framework atom = forms the basis of all biological molecules necessary for
life!
Catabolic Reactions ! Anabolic Reactions !
- Break down…read more

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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are a group of substances used as both energy sources and structural materials in
organisms.!
All carbohydrates contain Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. !
They have the general formula Cx(H2)y. !
3 Types of Carbohydrates!
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Monosaccharides - simple sugars with general formula (CH2O)n. n can be anything between 3
and 7. !
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Disaccharides - `double sugars' formed from 2 monosaccharides!
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Polysaccharides - large molecules formed from many monosaccharides
Glucose !
Abundant and important monosaccharide.…read more

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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Carbohydrates
Fructose and Galactose!
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2 more hexose monosaccharides are fructose and galactose!
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Galactose isn't as soluble as glucose - important in the production of glycolipids and glycoproteins. !
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Fructose is the main sugar in fruits and nectar. Its sweeter than glucose.!
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Monosaccharides form Disaccharides !
Pentoses !
monosaccharides that contain containing 5
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Two monosaccharides get joined
carbon atoms.…read more

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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Carbohydrates
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Sucrose = 1 Glucose and 1 Fructose !
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Maltose = 2 Glucose Molecules !
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Lactose = Galactose and Glucose !
(Beta 1-4 Glycosidic Bond) !
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Joshua Cole Biological Molecules Carbohydrates
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Structural Carbohydrates!
- Cellulose fibres are arranged specifically to form plant walls !
- This makes them very strong!
- Because of the amount of -OH groups there are lots of hydrogen bonds !
- about 60-70 Cellulose molecules become cross linked by hydrogen bonds to form cellulose
bundles, these are called micro-fibrils ! ! ! ! !…read more

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