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PSYB 2 ­ Revision

Autism
Pervasive developmental disorder ­ It is a disorder of the brain that stays with you all your life.
Starting at a very young age.

A syndrome ­ A disorder that consists of a set of symptoms that are not present in the sufferer by
chance…

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Cause and effect. Parents behave differently to autistic children. Is this the effect or the cause of
autism?

Biological explanation
Neurological correlates and neuro-imaging

The studies attempt to demonstrate a relationship between structural abnormalities and Autism.

PET scans ­ positron emission tomography. Small radioactive isotopes injected into the arm. PET…

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DZ twins should have the same concordance rate as normal siblings (3-6%) as they are no more
similar genetically. However in some studies they show that the concordance rate is higher. This
suggests that there are some environmental influences on autism.

The biological approach has been criticised for being reductionist.…

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In 1996, Hapner used the Titchner Illusion to demonstrate that normal people perceive the middle
circle on the right to be smaller than the middle circle on the left. People with autism perceive them
as the same size. She explained this by suggesting that normal people use global processing (they…

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may try to extinguish the behaviour by punishing you. Behaviour modification therapy uses positive
reinforcement to treat autism.

Applied Behavioural Analysis

Applied behavioural analysis is a popular treatment for autism. It is behaviour modification treatment
that uses reinforcement and shaping to improve selected behaviour. Behaviour in autistic children is
analysed…

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awarded for these individual parts. Behaviour shaping is very time consuming but with perseverance
and parental involvement it does bring success.

Music therapy ­ Christie and Wimpory have developed Communication Therapy with Synchronised
Music. The therapy is designed to train the autistic child in turn taking which is crucial to…

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