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AS Psychology

Attachment ­ a strong emotional bond between infants and their caregivers. Attached
infants will show a desire to be close to their primary caregiver and will show distress when
they're separated.

Learning Theory: a group of explanations which explain behaviour in terms of learning.

Classical Conditioning ­…

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Strengths of the Learning Theory:

It can provide an adequate explanation of how attachments form. We do learn through
association and reinforcement. However, food may not be the main reinforcer; it may be
that attention and responsiveness from a caregiver and important rewards that create the

Weaknesses of the…

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Bowlby's theory is an evolutionary theory. In his view, attachment is a behavioural system
that has evolved because of its survival value and its reproductive value. He believes children
have an innate drive to become attached to a caregiver.

Social Releasers
Sensitive Period
Internal Working Model

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separated, the child becomes distressed. When they're reunited, the child is easily
comforted by the caregiver. Secure attachments are associated with a healthy cognitive and
emotional development.

Insecure Attachments: the bond between the child and caregiver is weaker. There are two
types of insecure attachment:
Insecure avoidant: if they're separated…

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dependence and higher achievement orientation and interpersonal harmony.
Avoidant attachment is related to later aggressiveness and generally negative effects.
Resistant attachment is associated with greater anxiety and withdrawn behaviour.
Disorganised attachment is linked to hostile and aggressive behaviour.

Cultural Variations in Attachment

Cross Cultural Similarities:
Ainsworth did a study in…

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exist (differences between different cultures/countries). They also wanted to found out
whether there were intra-cultural differences (differences within cultures). Variation
between cultures: they found that the differences were small. Secure attachment was the
most common classification in every country. Insecure-avoidant was the next most
common in every country except Israel…

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Isolated Children

Genie was locked in her room by her father until she was 13½. When she was found, she
could not stand straight and could not speak. Socially, she never fully recovered. She showed
disinterest in other people. Her lack of recovery may be due to her extreme early…

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severe than was once though if children have the opportunity to form attachments.
However, when children don't form attachments, the consequences are likely to be severe.

Deprivation Dwarfism

Children in institutional care are usually physically small. One suggestion is that lack of
emotional care is the cause of such `dwarfism'.…

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advanced in their social development than those who stayed at home with their mothers,
These advances were in social development, independence, dinnertime obedience and social
interactions with peers.

Peer relations: Field found that the amount of time spent in full-time day care was
positively correlated to the number of friends…

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likely to be found in children who are placed in day care before they were 18 months old.
However, Clarke-Stewart et al. found no difference in attachment between children spending
a lot of time in day care (30 hours or more a week since three months) with children who


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