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Cognitive Psychology ­
Memory
Multi ­ Store Model
Working Memory Model
Eye Witn
ess Testimony
Cognitive interview
Memory improvement strategies




AS Psychology

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MULTI ­ STORE MODEL

A01

STM capacity: Jacobs _
String of digits increased. Major decrease in correct recall after 9 items in the string of
digits.

STM duration: Peterson and Peterson
Consonant trigrams count 3's. 3 secs 80% 18 secs 10%

STM encoding: Conrad
Sequences of letters acoustically sim/ dissim.…

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WORKING MEMORY MODEL




A01

Phonological loop: Baddeley, Thomson and Buchanan

One and poly syllabic words. P's wrote in serial order. Better of short words.
`word length effect' capacity ­ length of time taken to write other than item
number. 1.5 SECONDS

Visuo ­ spatial sketchpad: Baddeley, Wight and Thomson

Whether…

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Berz: Proves Musical memory.

EYE WITNESSES TESTIMONY

A01

Anxiety ­ Loftus

`weapon effect.' Two conditions ­ witness conversation with a pen and with a
knife. P's given 50 photos and asked to identify the man. Peaceful = better
recall. Violent = focus on weapon not man.

Misleading Information ­ Loftus…

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People who are likely to accept misleading information are: Poor recall of
events, high in imagery vividness, high on empathy.



COGNITIVE INTERVIEW

Type of cognitive interview Method
CR ­ Context reinstatement Weather, feeling ect.
RE ­ Report everything Recall everything no matter how
trivial or irrelevant.
CP ­ Changed perspective…

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Developmental Psychology ­
Attachment
Explanations of attachment
Strange Situation
Cultural variation
Disruptions
Day care




AS Psychology

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EXPLANATIONS OF ATTACHMENT

Learning Theory




Evolutionary Explanation

Bowlby:

Internal Working Model ­ Caregiver behaviour tells the baby what to expect
from others in later life.

Innate ­ For survival and reproduction

Social releasers ­ Crying or smiling. Elicits caregivers attention, adult responds.

Continuity hypothesis - Type of childhood = adult…

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Monotropy ­ One special relationship Most likely to be the person that
responds best to the social releasers.

PROVEN BY HARLOW & HARLOW AND LORENZ (Geese)
STRANGE SITUATION

A01

8 episodes of American children
1 year to 18 months
Monitored by observation: Seperation protest, stranger anxiety,
exploratory behaviour and reunion…

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A02

Proven by Ainsworth's `Caregiver sensitivity hypothesis'

High sensitivity levels = Secure
Unresponsive = Avoidant
Inconsistent = Resistant
Disproven by Kegan's `Temperament hypothesis'

Easy temperament = Secure
Slow to warm up temperament = Avoidant
Difficult temperament = Resistant




CULTURAL VARIATION

Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg

A01

Meta anaylsis analysing results from…

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Secure Avoidant Resistant

China 50% 25% 25%

Germany 56% 35% 8%

Findings:

Secure is the most common type across all 8 nations
Western ­ avoidant
Non- western ­ resistance
Apart from China
Conclusion:
Secure attachment is the `norm'
Support the idea Secure is the most healthy and beneficial
Similarities could…

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