AS Psychology A AQA Unit 1- Cognitive (Memory) and Developmental (Attachment) Brief Revision Summary

Booklet with brief notes on the studies with AO1's and AO2's

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Cognitive Psychology ­
Memory
Multi ­ Store Model
Working Memory Model
Eye Witn
ess Testimony
Cognitive interview
Memory improvement strategies
AS Psychology

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MULTI ­ STORE MODEL
A01
STM capacity: Jacobs _
String of digits increased. Major decrease in correct recall after 9 items in the string of
digits.
STM duration: Peterson and Peterson
Consonant trigrams count 3's. 3 secs 80% 18 secs 10%
STM encoding: Conrad
Sequences of letters acoustically sim/ dissim. More errors with the similar words.
LTM duration: Bahrick
392 school pupils, recog, matching, recall. Good after 34 years, better at recog than un-cued
recalled. Bad after 47 years.
LTM encoding: Baddeley
Accoustically sim/ disssim.…read more

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WORKING MEMORY MODEL
A01
Phonological loop: Baddeley, Thomson and Buchanan
One and poly syllabic words. P's wrote in serial order. Better of short words.
`word length effect' capacity ­ length of time taken to write other than item
number. 1.5 SECONDS
Visuo ­ spatial sketchpad: Baddeley, Wight and Thomson
Whether 2 visual tasks could be done. Gave P's tracking task whilst carrying
out imagery task. Hold image in head and respond to angle question with yes
or no. P's difficult. Shows VSS's limited resources.…read more

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Berz: Proves Musical memory.
EYE WITNESSES TESTIMONY
A01
Anxiety ­ Loftus
`weapon effect.' Two conditions ­ witness conversation with a pen and with a
knife. P's given 50 photos and asked to identify the man. Peaceful = better
recall. Violent = focus on weapon not man.
Misleading Information ­ Loftus + Palmer
45 students shown film. Given questionnaire with question ­ verb changes `hit'
`smash' `collide' and `contacted' P's estimated car speed. Smashed got the
highest. Follow up ­ asked if they saw glass.…read more

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People who are likely to accept misleading information are: Poor recall of
events, high in imagery vividness, high on empathy.
COGNITIVE INTERVIEW
Type of cognitive interview Method
CR ­ Context reinstatement Weather, feeling ect.
RE ­ Report everything Recall everything no matter how
trivial or irrelevant.
CP ­ Changed perspective Different viewpoint
RO ­ Reverse order Backwards, forwards ect.
Fisher et al: Works best if- Mininum distractions, actively listen, open-ended
questions, pauses, no judgemental comments.…read more

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Developmental Psychology ­
Attachment
Explanations of attachment
Strange Situation
Cultural variation
Disruptions
Day care
AS Psychology…read more

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EXPLANATIONS OF ATTACHMENT
Learning Theory
Evolutionary Explanation
Bowlby:
Internal Working Model ­ Caregiver behaviour tells the baby what to expect
from others in later life.
Innate ­ For survival and reproduction
Social releasers ­ Crying or smiling. Elicits caregivers attention, adult responds.
Continuity hypothesis - Type of childhood = adult ones.…read more

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Monotropy ­ One special relationship Most likely to be the person that
responds best to the social releasers.
PROVEN BY HARLOW & HARLOW AND LORENZ (Geese)
STRANGE SITUATION
A01
8 episodes of American children
1 year to 18 months
Monitored by observation: Seperation protest, stranger anxiety,
exploratory behaviour and reunion behaviour.…read more

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A02
Proven by Ainsworth's `Caregiver sensitivity hypothesis'
High sensitivity levels = Secure
Unresponsive = Avoidant
Inconsistent = Resistant
Disproven by Kegan's `Temperament hypothesis'
Easy temperament = Secure
Slow to warm up temperament = Avoidant
Difficult temperament = Resistant
CULTURAL VARIATION
Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg
A01
Meta anaylsis analysing results from 32 strange situations (2,000+
children) in 8 countries
18 studies in USA
Examples of results:
AS Psychology…read more

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Secure Avoidant Resistant
China 50% 25% 25%
Germany 56% 35% 8%
Findings:
Secure is the most common type across all 8 nations
Western ­ avoidant
Non- western ­ resistance
Apart from China
Conclusion:
Secure attachment is the `norm'
Support the idea Secure is the most healthy and beneficial
Similarities could be caused by media
A02:
Large samples enable the study to be generalised
Second hand data ­ No ethical issues
Did achieve aim ­ valid.…read more

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