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1) What is a citizen?
Acting on one's rights and duties to become a fully participating member of society.
Civil rights:
protecting individual freedoms such as the freedom of speech.
Political rights:
political rights are entitlements or permissions usually of a legal or moral nature.The right to stand for
office or the right to vote in a general election.
Social rights:
rights made by a group of people to maintain social order within a society. E.g. right to education.
2) Citizenship in the modern society
Citizen: Any individual with whatever rights and responsibilities they have where they are living.
Differing views of citizenship: (community Vs individual)
Communitarian -
social philosophy suggesting that communities are best placed to decide and define what they
think is right and proper.
They believe that is should be as much about doing something for others as it is about doing
something for yourself.
Individualist -

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Rights, duties and being British
Citizen's rights and duties:
Legal - Rights: free speech, own property, fair trial Duties: obey the law
Social - Rights: health care, education Duties: pay taxes, treat others as you would like to be
Political - Rights: vote, stand in election Duties: vote, participate
What does being British mean?
Becoming a British citizen - the citizenship test and ceremonies
Living in the UK
The nature of British identity
4) Why do people move to the UK?
Main reasons for…read more

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Integration: where groups traditionally excluded from society are able to move into the mainstream
of society, gaining rights and privileges that they would of been excluded form before.
Stereotyping: a stereotype is a phrase relating to a group of people, the term is often used in a
negative way when referring to an exaggerated assumption that a person possesses certain
characteristics associated with a group they belong to.…read more

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This is when an individual lacks basic resources to maintain an adequate diet, accommodation and
clothing which leads to deterioration of health.
Relative poverty:
This is a type of poverty where an individual will possess the basics and so not necessarily have
health risks. They would not have the means to take part in society through lack of resources E.g.
buying a TV.
Budget standards:
A method that the government uses in order to calculate the basic rate of benefits.…read more

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Anti-discrimination legislation
Gender - equal pay act 1970
Sex discrimination act 1975
Gender equality duty 2007
Disability - disability discrimination act 1995
Ethnicity - race relations act 1976 and 200 amendment
Sexual orientation - equality act 2006
Age - the employment equality (age) regulations 2006
Human rights act 1998
12) Human rights
Some rights and freedoms we all have:
the right to life
freedom from torture
freedom from slavery
the right to a fair trial
freedom of religion
freedom of expression
freedom from discrimination
Some…read more

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Magistrates court
usually made up of 3 local people (aged 21-60 but most are around 40)
balance of age, ethnicity ans race
must have a mature outlook
unpaid but give up 26 days a year for their service
can take time off their daily job but don't get paid for it
no professional legal experience
known as lay magistrates or Justice of Peace (JP)
hear 95% of criminal cases
decided on civil cases (mainly family cases)
appointed by advisory panels in each area
when sentencing…read more

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Legal professions
Lawyers are people who have studies and practiced law. They are divided into two groups of
barristers and solicitors who specialise in civil or criminal cases.
most barristers are self employed and make their money from advocacy
in higher courts they provide specialist opinions on complex matters of law
they usually act on instruction from solicitors and have little or no direct contact with members of
the public.…read more

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Community Legal Service Fund
Alternatives to the Community Legal Service are available to people who don't qualify for this
the Law Society has an accident help line that deals with the personal injury claims and operates
on a conditional fee scheme
young barristers that work on a pro bono basis - free
some people take out legal insurance. Premium costs are recoverable from the other party or by
winning the case.…read more

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