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research and
By Sade Thomas…read more

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Longitudinal Studies
Longitudinal Studies involve the study of a group of
people over an extended period of time.
Can Be known as Panel studies.
Often Data is collected periodically, with the
respondents being asked to provide information
perhaps every few months or every few years.
This type of research can be use a wide range of
methods: for example ,periodic focus groups or
group interviews.
Longitudinal studies may also make some use of
secondary sources…read more

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Advantages of Longitudinal
Allows the researcher to look at processes over
Does not require respondents to recall
information retrospectively therefore the data may
be more valid than conventional research.
Invaluable for studying topics that look at long-
term changes over an individuals life course e.g.
looking at social mobility factors influencing long-
term health or the relationship between
educational achievement and occupational
status…read more

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Disadvantages of Longitudinal
Requires a long term commitment from
Because of the extended time-period , it tends
to be extremely expensive.
Sample may become less representative over
time if the population it is designed to
represent changes some of its
characteristics.…read more

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Triangulation involves the use of three or more
sources of data or research methods in the
course of a single study.
A researcher might use more than one
primary source , and also use secondary data.…read more

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Examples of triangulation
Cecile Wright used the following four combination
of methods to investigate racism in primary
Classroom observation to see how teachers
actually behaved
Examination of documents about test results to
examine the effects of racism
Interviews with head teachers to investigate
school policies
Informal interviews with teachers to uncover
unobservable.…read more


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