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Cognitive Memory:
Key Words
Short-term memory: a temporary store where small amounts of information can be kept for brief periods. It is a
fragile store and information can be easily lost.
Long-term memory: A permanent store where limitless amounts of information can be stored for long periods of

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HM (Scoville and Milner, 1957) ­ did a case study on a man who had severe epilepsy. He had both his hippocampi
removed and then he could not form new long-term memories.
They found that the hippocampus might be the gateway to the LTM. KF (Shallice and Warrington, 1970) ­…

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D/E/C Overview:

Peterson and Peterson (1959)
AIM: of the experiment was to test how long STM lasts when rehearsal is prevented.

PROCEDURE: The participants were briefly shown a consonant trigram (i.e. 3 letters such as CPW or NGV).
Participants were asked to count backwards in threes from a…

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CONCLUSION: Bahrick concluded that people can remember certain types of information for almost a lifetime. The
accuracy of VLTM is better when measured by recognition tests than by recall tests.

Unlike many memory experiments, this study used meaningful stimulus material (high-school yearbooks) and
tested people for memories from their…

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Miller (1956) 7+/-2
Why are there so many things that come in sevens ­ such as seven wonders of the world, seven deadly sins, seven
primary colours, seven notes of the musical scale, and seven days of the week?

Miller (1956) reviewed psychological research to see what had been discovered.…

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The Working Memory Model (WMM):
The Working Memory Model was developed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974).

and Hitch felt that STM was not just one store but a number of different stores. This suggests that there is one store
for visual processing and one store for processing sounds.

Central executive:…

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Using case studies from brain damaged people, you cannot make before and after comparisons so you cannot
see whether changes in memory are caused by brain damage.
Berz found the model fails to account for musical memory.
It can account for individual differences in memory processing. Turner and Engle (1989)…

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Some critics of Loftus' studies have said that her participants were subject to demand characteristics. However,
Lofus devised a new experiment to refute this criticism.
Emotional arousal may actually enhance the accuracy of memory, as Christianson and Hubinette (1993) found
when they interviewed 110 real witnesses to bank robberies. Those…

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When they showed people a video of a staged bank hold-up, the participants had better recall for elements of the
film that conformed to their schema than to elements that did not.

Lindsay et al (2004)
Read accounts to participants of either a palace burglary or a school field trip…

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The differential experience hypothesis
Brigham and Malpass (1985) ­ suggest that the more contact we have with members of a particular age group or
ethnic group, the better our memory would be for such individuals.

Flin et al (1992)
EWT become less accurate over time and that this decline is…


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