Slides in this set
· Sensory Memory (SM) [Sperling 1960]
· Information collected from your senses, eyes, ears etc. Has a large capacity but the memory is
only retained for a brief period by the sensory register. Holds accurate images momentarily.
· Short Term Memory (STM)
· Memory for immediate events. Lasts shortly unless rehearsed e.g. verbal rehearsals.
Eventually short term memories will be transferred to the LTM. Has limited duration and
capacity (7+/-2 items). Known as the "working memory" used to comprehend languages.
Memories rapidly decay unless it is maintained through rehearsal.
· Long Term Memory (LTM)
· Memory for past events. Duration = anywhere from 2 hours -> 100 years. Store has potentially
unlimited duration & capacity
· Capacity [Miller 1956]
· Measurement of how much can be stores in your memory. Measured in terms of bits of
information e.g. number of digits. STM capacity= limited (7 +/- 2), LTM capacity= potentially
· Duration [Peterson and Peterson 1959]
· Measure of how ling a memory can last before becoming unavailable. STM = limited duration
(15-30 secs). LTM = unlimited duration (may last forever)
· Encoding [Baddley 1966]
· The way info is changed so that it can be stored as a memory. Info enters the brain via the
senses and is stored in various forms e.g. pictures [visual code] & sounds [acoustic code]
(STM). In the LTM, info is represented by its meaning [semantic code]…read more
How does it work?
· Atkinson and Shiffrin argue that there are 3 main stores
SM, STM & LTM.
· Sensory Store= 5 stores- 1 store for each sense. Research
mainly focused on visual and auditory stores.
· If data is paid attention to in the SM, then it is transferred
to the STM.
· According to the model, STM = crucial for getting info into
& retrieving info from the LTM.
· If info isn't passed from SM -> STM or STM -> LTM
through rehearsal, then it is forgotten. The more
something is rehearsed, the stronger the memory trace.…read more
Evaluation of the model
Strengths (+) Weaknesses (-)
Strong evidence to support STM doesn't function as a unitary
store. E.g. KF [Shalice and
claims for duration (Peterson & Warrington]
Peterson), capacity (Miller) &
Oversimplified, research has since
encoding (Baddeley) shown that there are more than 3
Includes details of structure and memory stores (e.g. bahrick et al,
process found a VLTM)
LTM is not a unitary store
Encouraged psychologists to
conduct research to test the Validity- the research studies have
tended to concern only semantic
model memory and therefore the results
-> increase in our understanding of and the MSM may only be relevant
memory to this kind of memory rather than
explaining memory for events in
the past.…read more
Evidence for the SM = Sperling 1960
· Studied the SM · In CA- pps typically recalled
· Firstly came up with Condition 4 or 5 letters / 12 (42%) but
A flash up 12 letters to pps for said they were aware of
· They were then asked to recall
all they could remember (whole · Pps in CB recall on average
report recall) ¾ items (75%) = better than
· Condition B = pps asked to when they were asked to
recall 1 line of 3 according to recall all (CA)
the tone they heard (partial
report technique) · The iconic (visual) memory
saw 9 or 10 /12 items but it
· Independent Variable = CB -
fades very quickly (within
the introduction of the tone & the time it takes to recall the
just having to recall 1 line items)
rather than all the leters
· Dependent Variable = number
of words recalled. · Classed as evidence for SM as
we have trouble
remembering things within…read more