AQA Psychology - Cognitive Psychology: Memory

I have used the "Psychology AS The Complete Companion" revision text book to make notes, diagrams and tables on the specification content of the Memory unit. Please note that most of the information is simplified and not copied down in all exactness, this will not teach you the content you need to know but will help you to revise it. I have compressed 10 double spreads worth of information on 7 pages. I hope you will find it useful.

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  • Created by: Axe Man
  • Created on: 01-01-13 20:44

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Page 1

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Nature of Memory: STM, LTM and duration

Duration of STM

Refers to how long a memory lasts before it is no longer available
Short term memories don't last very long
Rehearsal keeps memories in STM for longer

Duration of LTM

Anything that isn't short term
Lasts between roughly 2 hours…

Page 2

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Jacobs (1887)
- Used a digit span for determining capacity of STM
- Found it to be 9.3 for numbers and 7.3 for letters (on average)
Miller (1956)
- Proposed the magic 7+-2
- We can recall 5 words as well as we can recall 5 letters due to chunking…

Page 3

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Evaluating the multi store model of memory

Strengths Weaknesses

Strong evidence of 3 qualitatively different Too little focus on process. Items can be
stores remembered through deep processing too ­
Craik and Lockheart (1972)
Clear predictions on memory, so we can conduct Oversimplifies memory structures and
tests easily processes.
LTM…

Page 4

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Episodic Buffer
- Extra storage system
- Has a limited capacity
- Integrates information from the other components and also from LTM




Evaluating the working memory model

Strengths Weaknesses

Strong evidence supports the existence of each Patient EVR demonstrated that the Central
component Executive is more complex than we think…

Page 5

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Eyewitness Testimony

- Refers to the information provided to the police by a person who witnessed a crime
- Is not a very reliable or accurate source of information for the police

Key study: Loftus and Palmer (1974)
- Showed 45 British school children 7 video clips of traffic accidents…

Page 6

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Loftus et al. (1987) monitored the eye movements of eyewitnesses and found that their attention
was drawn towards a weapon, if one was present, and away from the person's face

Age of witness

Parker and Carranza (1989) compared primary school children and college students in their ability to
correctly identify…

Page 7

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Stein and Memon (2006) conducted the CI in Brazil. Compared to Brazil's standard interviewing
technique (interrogative and torture), the CI produced much more accurate information.

Police forces often have less time than is available and so they don't conduct the Cognitive Interview
in its entirety (Kebell and Wagstaff, 1996). It…

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