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Attachments…read more

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Critical Period: Social Releasers-
develop within 2
years ½ or not at
Theories of Attachment infant demands
reaction by crying
Evolutionary Theory
· Bowlby described that an attachment was innate, reciprocal
· Emotional bond between infant and main care giver
· He suggested that this attachment increases chances of
survival, as the attachment is reciprocal, adults are likely to
be programmed to be attached to their infant
Continuity Hypothesis
Critical Period
Is that the relationship
That if a child doesn't form
with one attachment
an attachment before the
age of 2 ½
provides an Internal
Child would not be able to
form one after this age working model for all
Secure children develop Internal working model: view
Monotropy: All infants
develop one special positive relationships than person has of themselves based
on childhood and strength of
attachment to main children rejected by care attachment determines success of
caregiver future relationships
giver…read more

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· Hazan and Shaver's love quiz supports the
concept as it assesses attitudes generated from
an internal working model
· Lorenz's study into geese shows the idea that
attachments are innate and a biological behaviour
· Bowlby's `critical period' -critized, suggest maybe
this period is a sensitive period to form an
attachment rather than a critical period,
suggesting attachments can be formed after 2
½ though it may take longer…read more

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Theories of Attachment
Learning Theory
· This suggest that a child has no innate tendency
to form attachments but learn because of food
Operant Conditioning (learning
Classical conditioning (learning
through reward and
through association)
Based on Pavlov's experiment
Suggests that an infant is A infant feels
born with reflex uncomfortable when
responses they are hungry
But being fed satisfies the
The food produces a infants hunger
response of pleasure
making them feel
And the person provided
the food is associated with
this pleasure Which results in a drive
Therefore forming reduction which is
an attachment rewarding…read more

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· The Learning theory is critized for being reductionist,
overly simplifying idea's. It may be that attachments are
too complex behaviours and the learning theory is too
simple to explain
· The Learning theory predicts that an infant's attachment
is formed on the basis of who provides the food. Shaffer
and Emerson found that this is not always true, as they
found in their study that less than half of infants had
a primary attachment to the person who gave them basic
· Harlow & Harlow's monkey study found that food was not
the main source of reinforcement, it was contact comfort
that was the key source, establishing that attachments
is not just based on food. This contradicts the Learning
Theory.…read more

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