AQA Memory

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Definition: the mental process involving the retrieval and storage of information
from the short and long term memory.
MultiStore Model:
Developed by Atkinson and Shiffrin
A key principle is that rehearsal must be done to pass information from one
store to another
Attention must be paid to transfer information from the sensory memory to
the short term memory
Information must pass through all three stages to be remembered
There's limitations in capacity and duration at each stage
MurdockSerial position effectgave participants a list of words to learn and
were then asked to free recall them. The recenecy effect was established
whereby words at the end of the list were recalled due to being stored in
short term memory and the primacy effect was also established whereby
words at the beginning of the list were remembered due being rehearsed and
being transferred to the long term memory.
Glanzer and Cunitz developed Murdock's work by adding in a time delay so that
rehearsal was prevented. They found that words at the end of the list weren't
remembered as they weren't rehearsed, however the primacy effect was
Shallice and Warrington looked at the case study of KF who suffered from a
motor cycle accident causing damage to his left hemisphere. His LTM was
unaffected but his STM memory was drastically reduced in terms of capacity.
Usually the STM can retain 57 units of information but this was reduced to
Milner studied case study of HM who suffered from epilepsy and went for
surgery to have his hippocampus removed. The surgery went successfully and
his epilepsy was gone, however, his memory was severely impaired
afterwards. His STM memory was fine but his LTM was unable to accept new
information from the STM.
Lots of evidence to support the idea of 3 distinct stores
Established a paradigm for future research to be based on
- It's over simplified and inflexible because in real life there's no clear distinction
- Focuses too much on the impact of rehearsal as something may be
remembered if it was funny or relevant
- Too descriptive of the stores and ignores the importance of the processes
causing this to be reductionist and not looking at the bigger picture. A more
comprehensive model is needed to reflect the principles of the cognitive
- All research is lab based which reduces ecological validity as the findings can't
be generalised to real life, for example, in real life people deal with more than
7 units of information at one time.

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Working Memory Model:
Developed by Baddeley and Hitch and focuses on the STM
It's key features include:
o Central executivecontrol centre that deals with cognitive demands
o Phonological LoopDeals with auditory information and helps with
language acquisition
o VisuoSpatial Sketchpad deals with visual stimuli and is the internal eye
which processes movement, landmarks and spatial awareness.
Baddeley asked participants to follow light dot and describe angles in a letter F
in one condition, in other condition, follow light dot and recite a poem.…read more

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Eye Witness Testimony (EWT):
There's different factors affecting the accuracy of EWT, factors such as
Misleading information, anxiety and age.
Misleading Information:
Loftus and Palmer investigated the effect of misleading information on the
accuracy of EWT. They found that questions phrased using a variety of words
that have similar meanings (in context: smashed, hit, bumped, collided)
influenced schemas which caused the participants to give desirable answers.…read more

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Loftus et al found that elderly people are more likely to make false
identifications and were poorer at detailed recall.…read more

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Memory Improvement Strategies:
Retrieval Cues:
Act as prompts to trigger recall
Baddeley found that with drivers who learnt and recalled word lists either on
dry land or under water words learnt and recalled in the same conditions were
better recalled.
Overton found that if participants were in the same psychological state as
they were when the learnt material, they recalled information better, for
example, being intoxicated.…read more

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Craik and Lockhart found that for participants who analysed material by
meaning, recall was superior
Morris et al found that football fans recalled more actual scores than nonfans
as they actively processed the information as it was meaningful to them
- It's a subjective measure and therefore can't be scientifically tested as
what may be meaningful to one person may not be to another.…read more


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